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Full text of "Historic Furnishings Report: Washington's Headquarters--Valley Forge National Historic Park"

Clemson University 



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Historic Furnishings Report. 






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Historic Furnishings Report 

WASHINGTON'S HEADQUARTERS 

VALLEY FORGE 

National Historic Park/Pennsylvania 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/historicfurnishiOOvforg 



HISTORIC FURNISHINGS REPORT 



WASHINGTON'S HEADQUARTERS 



VALLEY FORGE NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 



by 
Katherine B. Menz 



1989 

Harpers Ferry Center 

National Park Service 

U.S. Department of the Interior 



Contents 



PREFACE v 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vii 

ADMINISTRATIVE DATA 1 

Prior Planning Documents 1 

Interpretive Objectives 1 

Operating Plan 2 

Proposed Plan for a Combined Historic 

Furnishings/Exhibits Treatment of the Interior 2 

HISTORICAL DATA 5 

Analysis of Historic Occupancy 5 

Owner and Occupants, c. 1768- 1777 5 

Family Relationships 6 

Valley Forge Headquarters, 1777/78 15 

The Military Family 15 

Household Staff at Headquarters 20 

Daily Life at Headquarters 24 

Evidence of Room Use and Original Furnishings 30 

Wills and Inventories 30 

Washington Expense Accounts 45 

Eighteenth Century References to Life and Furnishings 

at Valley Forge 64 

Furnishings in Other Collections with a Washington 
Provenance 75 

FURNISHING PLAN 85 

General Washington's Office 85 

General and Mrs. Washington's Bedroom 89 

Aides' Room 95 

Small Room/Guest Room 99 

Aides' Work Room/Dining Room 101 

Kitchen 110 

Working Drawings 119 

Furnishings Maintenance and Protection 129 



in 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 143 

ILLUSTRATIONS 151 

APPENDIXES 165 

Appendix I — Genealogical charts for the Potts, Rutter, and 

Pyewell Families 167 

Appendix II— Thomas Potts' Inventory, 1762 177 

Appendix III — Washington Collection, Valley Forge Historical 

Society 181 

Appendix IV — 1902 Correspondence between Dr. J.N. Woodman 
and General Davis Regarding the Potts' Chair, Bucks County 

Historical Society 187 

Appendix V — An Inventory of Articles at Mount Vernon 193 

Appendix VI — Washington's Daily Meals 203 

Appendix VII — Catalog of Washington's Library of Military 

Works in the Boston Athanaeum 215 

Appendix VIII — Washington Expense Accounts, January 4, 

1777-June 30, 1778 223 



IV 



PREFACE 



Furnishing Gen. George Washington's Valley Forge Headquarters has been a 
project of community interest since the turn of the century. The Centennial 
Association of Valley Forge, formed in 1877, became the Centennial and 
Memorial Association of Valley Forge in 1878. The following year they pur- 
chased the headquarters building. In 1885 the patriotic order, Sons of America, 
helped the association raise the money to erase the mortgage debt on the house. 
In 1900 the Valley Forge Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution 
(DAR) applied to the association for permission to furnish one of the second floor 
bedrooms, which later became known as George Washington's bedroom. In 
1902 and 1903 the Valley Forge Chapter furnished two more rooms. At the 
same time the Chester County Chapter furnished a second floor room, and in 
1903/04 the Merion Chapter furnished an attic room. 

In 1905 the Valley Forge Park Commission assumed administration from the 
Centennial and Memorial Association. The park commission continued to work 
with the DAR, and additional furnishings were purchased for the headquarters 
building. 

In 1912 a trust fund was created from funds left by the Centennial and Memorial 
Association for interior restoration. This project was completed in 1916 in 
cooperation with the DAR. Furnishings were acquired at that time from John 
Wanamaker and Alfred Lewis Ward, whose decorators supervised the project. 

At that time the interior furnishings were described as: 

...a restoration, as nearly as possible, in the style of the period, and 
is intended to correspond with the exterior of the Mansion, which was 
theretofore and thereafter the home of the owners and managers of 
the Valley Forge who blended the competence of ironmasters with the 
simplicity of the Society of Friends to which they belonged. 

After Horace Wells Sellers, chairman of the Philadelphia Chapter of the 
American Institute of Architects, performed a study in the mid- 1920s of 
Washington's Headquarters, changes were made both to the structure of the 



1 U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, "Administrative History, 
Valley Forge National Historical Park, Pennsylvania," by Harlan D. Unrau (Denver, 
CO: Denver Service Center, September 1984), p. 141. 



house as well as to the interior furnishings. In 1933 and 1934 the furnishings 
were changed, probably primarily to furnish the kitchen that was reconstructed 
at that time. The spare bedroom, the only room remaining to be furnished, was 
furnished in 1938 through donations from Mrs. Joseph B. Hutchinson, a park 
commission member. Community interest continues with donations of needed 
items. 

The brief history abstracted from Harlan Unrau's extensive administrative 
history of Valley Forge indicates that most of the furnishings at Washington's 
Headquarters were acquired through donations and the dedicated efforts of 
community members. When these furnishings were acquired, the study of the 
decorative arts was a burgeoning subject. Ongoing historical research has 
changed many of the early 20th century perceptions about the decorative arts. 
This new furnishings plan reflects the new information. 

Although some furnishings have been recommended for removal and others are 
recommended as replacements, every effort has been made to include as many 
as possible of the items originally acquired through the work and efforts of 
community members. 



VI 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



I would like to acknowledge the assistance of the park staff including Super- 
intendent Wallace Elms, Chief of Interpretation John Tyler, Interpretive Su- 
pervisor Barbara Pollarine, and Park Curator Betty Browning. 

Park Historian Joan Marshall Dutcher deserves special mention. She 
gathered material for this report and assisted with much of the research into 
county records as well as suggested places to look for material. 

David Dutcher and Anna Coxe Toogood, both at Independence National His- 
torical Park, also uncovered several interesting facts included here from the 
files at Independence. 

Curator Christine Meadows and Curatorial Registrar Mary V. Thompson, 
Mount Vernon, assisted me with information on George Washington's daily 
life. 

Bill Brown, staff curator with the Division of Historic Furnishings at the Har 
pers Ferry Center, offered invaluable advice on military sources, attire, and 
accoutrements. 

Many thanks also to Cheryl Hill and David Wallace for their advice and edit- 
ing. 

A number of park interpreters also contributed to this report, some knowing- 
ly, others unknowingly. 



VI 1 



ADMINISTRATIVE DATA 



PRIOR PLANNING DOCUMENTS 

ID LCS: 22333. Approved for preservation by the General Management Plan. 
Entered in the National Register February 11, 1973. 

"Historic Furnishings Plan, Washington's Headquarters, Valley Forge 
Park," by Anne Rowland Woodward, August 1974. 

"Statement for Management, Valley Forge National Historical Park," by H. 
Gilbert Lusk, October 1977. 

"General Management Plan, Valley Forge National Historical Park," 1982. 

"Historic Structure Report; Washington's Headquarters, Valley Forge National 
Historical Park," by John Bruce Dodd and Cherry Dodd, 1981. 

"Interpretive Prospectus, Valley Forge National Historical Park," March 1982. 

"Administrative History, Valley Forge National Historical Park," by Harlan 
D. Unrau, September 1984. 



INTERPRETIVE OBJECTIVES 

Washington's Headquarters is the focal point at Valley Forge National His- 
torical Park for in-depth interpretation of the American army's command cen- 
ter. The 1982 Interpretive Prospectus states: "The emphasis at 
Headquarters should be on the varied activities (and probably hectic pace) of 
a military command center. Numerous aides engaged in all sorts of ac- 
tivities...." 

This small stone building served as quarters and office space for Washington, 
his military Family, Mrs. Washington, and attendant servants. The recom- 
mended furnishings reflect the varied activities taking place in the house 
and, as far as possible, the crowded conditions and numerous people working, 
eating, and sleeping at headquarters. 



OPERATING PLAN 

Washington's Headquarters is open every day of the year except Christmas. 
From Memorial Day to Labor Day the hours are 8:30 a.m. to 6:00 p.m.; the 
rest of the year, from 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. 

The Interpretive Prospectus notes that because of the small size of the house 
little interpretation can take place inside the house. Visitors should be 
prepared prior to entering the house, then enter through the front entrance, 
tour the first and second floors, return back down the stairs, and exit through 
the side entrance by the kitchen. 

From two to four interpreters as needed will be stationed throughout the 
house and outside. Door barriers will provide security during visiting hours. 
Attaching an alarm system to the barriers will provide backup security on 
the second floor. An intrusion alarm system will be activated at night. 



Proposed Plan for a Combined Historic Furnishings/Exhibits Treatment of 
the Interior 

A more successful interpretive approach to the interiors at Washington's 
Headquarters can be achieved through a combination of furnishings and ex- 
hibits. 

The small size of the building and the large number of people wishing to view 
the building limit the amount of furnishings that can be placed in the rooms. 
For example, no furnishings can be placed in the hallways, areas of the 
greatest activity at Washington's Headquarters. The multi-use of many of 
the rooms cannot be shown through furnishings because the furniture not in 
use would have been removed. The rooms are too small for items such as 
extra beds or tables to be stored along the walls. For the room that doubled 
as the aides' work room and the commander-in-chiefs dining room until 
March 1778 this plan offers two optional furnishing plans to permit showing 
either use, as desired. 

By combining historic furnishings and a type of interior wayside exhibit, how- 
ever, visitors will leave the house with a better understanding of the ac- 
tivities and number of people at headquarters. Exhibits will depict each 
room as it would have looked at various times during the day on one or two 
pictorial panels per room. 




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HISTORICAL DATA 



ANALYSIS OF HISTORIC OCCUPANCY 

The Continental Army rented a two-story stone home and its furnishings for 
General Washington's headquarters during his encampment at Valley Forge in 
1777/78. The house, owned by Isaac Potts, was occupied prior to Washington 
by Mrs. Deborah Hewes, Isaac Potts' cousin by marriage. 



Owner and Occupants, c.1 768-1 777 

On February 7, 1776, Isaac Potts ran the following advertisement in The 
Pennsylvania Gazette describing the house: 

To be Lett for one Year, And may be entered the 1st day of the Fourth 
Month next. A Convenient two story stone House, with a Kitchen 
adjoining, also a good garden, stables, & etc. Situated in Upper 
Merion township, Philadelphia County, For terms apply to Isaac 
Potts, Potts-town or David Potts, Philadelphia. 

This description matches the 1798 Glass Tax description of a house purchased 
by Jacob Paul from Isaac Potts. Although records do not clearly state exactly 
when this house was built, the most recent research suggests that the house 
was constructed between 1768 and 1773 on Isaac Potts' property, which he 
acquired through his father's estate in 1773. Isaac Potts may have built the 
house, but no evidence documents that he ever lived there. The advertisement 
suggests that the house was occupied and would not be vacant for two months. 
Because it lists Isaac as already located in Pottstown, he was apparently not 
the occupant. 



Advertisement, The Pennsylvania Gazette (Philadelphia), February 7, 1776. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, "Historic Structure Report; Washington's 
Headquarters, Valley Forge National Historical Park," by John Bruce Dodd and Cherry 
Dodd, 1981 (hereafter cited as HSR). 

National Heritage Corporation, "Historical Research, Valley Forge State Park," 
February 20, 1974. 



Isaac Potts received enough money to pay for this land purchase as part of his 
legacy from his father's estate. The list of expenditures included in the estate 
settlement indicates that Isaac Potts bought land in Pottstown at the same time 
that he bought the Valley Mill property. The November 5, 1770, entry is, 
unfortunately, not very specific. 

Nov. 5, 1770 To David Potts for a house 19..20... 

Nov. 1770 To Samuel Potts for balance due him on account 
568..12..6VS 

Feb. 1, 1773 To Joseph Potts for Valley Mill 1328, interest on ditto 
to Feb. 6, 1777 200 pounds 

1773 To Estate of J. Potts for land in Pottstown 180..2..6 

Jan. 20, 1774 To one half years Interest short charged on the money 
paid Joseph Potts 

Isaac Potts probably moved to Pottstown in 1774 when he applied to join Exeter 
Meeting transferring from Radnor Quaker Meeting. Whether or not Potts ever 
lived in the house, it seems unlikely that he would have left behind any 
furnishings. Although Potts was well-to-do, he was not extremely wealthy and 
would not have left valuable household items behind. 

When General Washington leased the Isaac Potts house in Valley Forge for his 
headquarters, it was occupied by Mrs. Deborah Hewes. Washington's accounts 
show he paid Deborah Hewes rent for the use of the house and her furniture. 

Deborah Hewes probably first rented the house in 1776 when Isaac ran his 
advertisement. The advertisement does not appear again in The Pennsylvania 
Gazette. In 1776, Mrs. Hewes was living in Philadelphia with her second 
husband Caleb Hewes. She most likely contacted David Potts, who was also 
mentioned in the advertisement and lived in Philadelphia. 

Family Relationships. The close family relationships described below explain 
why the Hewes chose Isaac Potts' house as their refuge from Philadelphia while 
the British occupied Philadelphia and indicate that the Hewes had plenty of 
family with whom they could stay while Washington occupied their home. 



4 The accounting of Isaac Potts' father, under the heading "Isaac Potts," Potts Papers, 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

5 This building was no doubt the one used by Washington. See the HSR. 

6 Receipt, June 18, 1778, Washington Papers, Library of Congress (LC). 



Deborah was closely connected with the Potts family through her first husband 
(Isaac Potts' cousin) and her half brother and stepsister. (A brief genealogical 
chart explains the family interconnections in Appendix I.) The small size of the 
Potts house makes it extremely unlikely that the Hewes remained in the house 
while Washington was there. 

Deborah Pye well/Thomas Rutter/Thomas Potts.Deborah Hewes 
was born Deborah Pyewell (b.October 10, 1736), the daughter of William 
Pyewell (d. March 24, 1769) and Mary Catherine (Ghiseln) Pyewell (d. Sept. 24, 
1762). Mary Catherine had first married Thomas Rutter (d. 1734), a close 
friend and business connection of the Potts family. Their son Thomas, heir to 
the Rutter iron business, was three years old when his father died. A year later, 
on July 24, 1735, the widow Rutter married William Pyewell and went to live 
in Philadelphia, where little Thomas and his stepsisters and stepbrother — 
Deborah, Rebecca, and Jonathon Pyewell — grew up together. Thomas' step- 
father, William Pyewell, acted as his guardian. His name appears "Wm Pyewell 
for Thos. Rutter" on a 1736 document relating to the partnership that owned 
Colebrookdale furnace, the majority of which was later inherited by Thomas 
Potts, Deborah Pyewell's first husband. Thomas Rutter became Thomas Potts' 
good friend; Thomas Potts named his "beloved friend" Thomas Rutter as one of 
the executors of his will. At the time of the Valley Forge encampment, Thomas 
Rutter, Deborah's half brother, was living in nearby Pottstown in a brick house 
called "Laurel Lodge." He married Martha Potts (b.1740) in 1759 and may have 
provided a place for his half sister's family to live temporarily. When he died 
in 1795, he left a small legacy to his half brother Jonathon Pyewell, which 
indicates that he maintained family connections with the Pyewells. 

Deborah (Pyewell) Potts/Rebecca Rutter/Thomas Potts. In 1742 
one of Mary Catherine's stepdaughters, Rebecca Rutter (daughter of Thomas 
and Sarah Rutter) married Thomas Potts (1720-1762, son of Thomas Potts, Jr., 
and Magdalen Robeson, and Isaac Potts' cousin). Rebecca died in 1752, and in 
1756 Thomas Potts married his deceased wife's stepsister, Deborah Pyewell. 



7 Pyewell has been spelled Pywell in some records. 

8 Wills and inventories, Berks County Courthouse, Reading (cited hereafter as BCC); 
wills and inventories, Philadelphia County Courthouse, Philadelphia (cited hereafter as 
PCC); Mrs. Thomas Potts James, Memorial of Thomas Potts, Junior (Cambridge: 
privately printed, 1874). 



In 1752, Thomas Potts inherited his father's right to purchase a two-third 
interest in Colebrookdale furnace. According to Potts' will of 1762, he had 
acquired the Colebrookdale furnace by the time of his death and owned a 
sizeable amount of other property as well (Appendix II). He divided the property 
among his children and provided for his mother and for his second wife, 
Deborah. He specified that Deborah receive the rents from the furnaces until 
the youngest child reached the age of 14. At that time (should it be ad- 
vantageous to the family) the furnaces were to be sold; apparently Deborah was 
to receive a share of the proceeds along with the children. 

On May 22, 1766, the following advertisement appeared in The Philadelphia 
Gazette: 

To be sold by public vendue by the subscribers, on the 23 Day of May 
instant on the premises. 

A valuable Tract of Land, containing 500 acres or upwards situate in 
Berks County about 3 miles from Pottsgrove, and within 15 miles of 
Reading Town, it lies near several Iron-works and Merchant Mills, 
the Great Road leading from Philadelphia to Reading running 
through the same, it also joins the River Schuylkill, there are two 
tenements on said land, one of the tenements is a good Log House 
with a large frame barn, a well of good water near the door, there is 
also a very valuable Orchard.... 

Estate of Thomas Potts, late of Colebrookdale Williams Dewes and 
Thomas Rutter Executors. 

This land was probably a part of those lands Thomas describes in his will to be 
sold to pay his debts. Thomas Potts' youngest child, William (b.1755), was not 



9 Ibid. He also inherited the right to purchase iron mines and 100 acres of land adjoining 
the furnace for £800 + 1/16 the interest from money from the sale of lands and £500 
after an annuity is paid to his mother Magdalen. 

10 Advertiseme.it, The Philadelphia Gazette, May 22, 1766. 



S 



yet 14; however, Deborah married Caleb Hewes in 1766. She may have 
inherited some money from the sale of this land. 

His will does not mention the disposition of his personal property. It is likely, 
however, that the majority of it remained with his wife, Deborah. Papers 
relating to the settlement of Thomas Potts' estate appear in the land records for 
Berks County as late as 1801. Deborah Potts Hewes is not mentioned in them 
possibly because she was no longer alive. The children may have had to wait 
for her death to settle the Potts estate. 

Thomas Potts and Rebecca Rutter had five children: David (b.1743, d.1782; 
oldest son), Hannah (married Thomas Dewes or Dewees), Sarah (married 
William Dewes, died before the revolution), Thomas (became a watch-maker), 
and Magdalen (m. John Ellis, a surveyor, c.1763). These children were all 
married shortly after their father's death. None of them would have been living 
with Deborah Hewes at the time of the revolution. A family descendant states, 
however, that Deborah was taking care of her stepgranddaughter Anna Ellis. 
Anna's parents, John and Magdalen Potts Ellis, were married in 1763. Their 
first child, Thomas, was born in 1764. Anna was born sometime thereafter. In 
1777, she could have been no older than 12. As it was a common 18th century 
practice to send children to live with a relative, this family history is not 
unlikely. 



11 Land Deeds, Berks County, September 12, 1801, Thomas Potts and Thomas Rutter, 
Samuel Baird and David Rutter, BCC. 

12 James, Memorial of Thomas Potts, pp. 238-245; Land Deeds, Berks County, BCC; Land 
Deeds, Montgomery County, Montgomery County Courthouse, Norristown, 
Pennsylvania. 

13 Mary Lou Alston to Mrs. Nancy Speers, January and February 1986, Swarthmore 
College, Swarthmore, PA. 



Thomas and Deborah had two children, Rebecca (June 1753 or 1758-June 16, 
1830) and William (1758 or 1760). 14 Rebecca married Samuel Baird (a sur- 
veyor) in 1782, and William married Mary Francis Potts in 1798. William may 
have been living with another relative or learning a trade by 1777, but Rebecca 
would most likely have remained with her mother until she was married. Mrs. 
James, in the Potts genealogy, quotes a memory of Rebecca's daughter-in-law 
(Lydia Biddle Baird): 

I remember perfectly hearing her speak of sitting with Mrs. 
Washington, who taught her to sew, and when she left Valley Forge, 
gave her a variety of little articles, among others a silver betting- 
needle [bedding-needle?] and thimble, pincushion and needle-book, 
which my daughters now have in their possession. 

Deborah (Pyewell Potts) Hewes/Caleb Hewes. Deborah and Caleb 
Hewes had one child, Mary Hewes, on December 8, 1767, one year after their 
marriage. Mary married Samuel Potts (son of John Potts and Margaret Car- 
mick) and moved to Lycoming County, Pennsylvania. A descendant states 
that Caleb and Deborah also had a son. In 1777, both children would have 
been age 10 or younger. 

Deborah Hewes has been described as a widow at the time that Washington 
rented her home. Although her husband's whereabouts during the war are not 



14 James, Memorial of Thomas Potts, pp. 238-245. According to Mrs. James, authoress of 
an 1874 Potts family genealogy, the descendants of Rebecca stated that the birth date 
on her tombstone was incorrect and should have been 1758. Because her brother was 
two years younger, his birth date was 1760. The later dates are the more logical ones if 
the 1756 marriage date for Deborah and Thomas is correct. (In 1756 Deborah would 
have been age 20.) 

15 Ibid. 

16 Ibid. 

17 A Genealogical Record of the Friends Composing Muncy Monthly Meeting, Lycoming 
County, Pennsylvania, and its subordinate meetings, Samuel Potts and Mary Hughes 
(daughter of Caleb and Deborah Pyewell Potts Hewes), Historical Society of Berks 
County, Reading, Pennsylvania. 

18 Mary Lou Alston to Mrs. Nancy Speers, January and February 1986, Swarthmore 
College, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania. 



10 



known, Caleb Hewes was still alive. According to a 1782 land deed he was living 
in Pottsgrove with Deborah and was practicing his trade as a hatter. 

Caleb Hewes began life as a Quaker, first marrying in October 1757 a woman 
named Abigail. Abigail died ten months later, July 22, 1758, possibly in 
childbirth. In 1762 Caleb was read out of the meeting. On July 30, 1762, the 
Philadelphia Monthly Meeting recorded: 

The overseers also acquainted the meeting that Caleb Hewes is 
charged with being the Father of an illigitimate child. Jeremiah 
Apath, Isaac Zone, and Thomas Hallowell and Anthony Benezet are 
appointed to treat with him thereon. Enquire into the case so as to 
be able to report to the next meeting. 

The matter was investigated, and the records of September 24, 1762, reported 
the final outcome: 

A Testimony against Caleb Hewes being prepared was also con- 
sidered and approved, and Israel Pemberton appointed to deliver him 
a copy and acquaint him with his right of appeal — 

Whereas a Report having lately prevailed concerning Caleb Hewes of 
this City, Hatter, of being the Father of an Illigitimate Child, As he 
was educated and made profession with us the People called Quaker, 
Itbecame the case of Friends to enquire into the grounds of the report, 
in the course whereof the mother of the Child declared him the said 
Caleb to be the father in a very Solemn manner, and diverse concur- 
ring circumstances attended her declaration which gave us Reason 
to believe that the charge against him was just. As also his profession 
denial of [sundry?] facts relative thereto proved against him by 
persons of undoubted credit; For which together with his refusal of 
doing the woman that Justice which her case required; We think it 
incumbent on us for the clearing of Truth, and our Religious Society 



19 Land Deeds, Philadelphia County, Caleb Hewes to John Angus, May 8, 1782, PCC. 

20 William Wade Hinshaw and Thomas Worth Marshall, comp., Encyclopedia of American 
Quaker Genealogy, vol. 2 (Ann Arbor, Michigan: Edwards Brothers, Inc., 1938), p. 558. 

21 Ibid., p. 379. 

22 Philadelphia Monthly Meeting, July 30, 1762; August 27, 1762; September 24, 1762; 
and October 29, 1762, Quaker Collections, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, 
Pennsylvania, p. 55. 



11 



publicly to declare our disunity with such reproachful conduct, and 
to exclude the said Caleb Hewes from membership with us as a 
Religious Society, until by a Steady and uniform course of life, he 
approves himself truly penitent and reformed and Condemns his 
Misconduct to the satisfaction of this meeting. 

He evidently did not become "truly penitent" or seek to rejoin the meeting; his 
name is absent from later Friends records. 

In 1762 Caleb Hewes insured a dwelling on the north side of High Street, 
opposite Jersey Market. The insurance survey describes in detail its ap- 
pearance: 

20' front, 38' back, 3 stories high, 9" party walls, railed above plaster 
partitions, parlor and 1 chamber painted, piazza and stairway 7-1/2' 
x 10-1/2', 3 stories plastered newelled staircase, kitchen 18' x 12-1/2' 
2 stories high, new shingling and painted £500 on the whole at 20 
shillings. 

He added more insurance, the sum of £200, for the kitchen, piazza, and staircase. 
This substantially sized dwelling had a fairly elegant first floor with plaster, 
paint, chair rail, and a newelled stairway. The second and third floors were 
probably whitewashed. Caleb Hewes must have brought Deborah to this house 
when they were married in 1766. Tax records for 1769 list Hewes still at this 
residence. His occupation is given as "Hatter"; he had one horse, one cow, and 
one servant and paid a tax of £32.10.0. 

In February 1770, Caleb bought property on Lombard Street between Second 
and Third Streets from the estate of Deborah's father, William Pyewell, for £695. 
Pyewell's estate deeds describe the property as messuage or "Tenement Kitchen 
and two described pieces of ground... containing in breadth twenty feet and in 
length seventy seven feet." Isaac Potts and David Potts, Jr., witnessed Pyewell's 
estate's settlement papers in 1771; Caleb and Deborah received £570.19.5 1/2 
as their share. This deed shows contact between the Hewes and Potts prior 



23 Ibid., p. 67. 

24 Contributionship Insurance Survey, Caleb Hewes, April 21, 1762, II 712-13, 
Independence National Historical Park Archives, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

25 Tax Records, Philadelphia County, 1769, Caleb Hewes, PCC. 

26 Land Deeds, Philadelphia County, John Pyewell, et al, November 2, 1771, PCC. 



12 



to the time when the Hewes rented Isaac Potts' house at Valley Forge. Deborah 
was related to the Potts through her first marriage, and she evidently did not 
lose contact with them when she married Hewes. A bill in Isaac Potts' accounts 
shows that Isaac Potts patronized Hewes' hatmaking establishment: "May 27, 
1773 To Cash paid Caleb Hewes, for Hats for Isaac and Becky 8..11..6." 27 

The following year, 1771, Caleb Hewes announced an expansion of his business. 
In April and June he ran the following advertisement: 

Caleb Hewes, Hat-maker 

In Market-Street between second and front street, five doors below 
Hall & Sellers printing-office, at the sign of the White Hat and 
Beaver, Having erected a manufactory for wool hats, proposes carry- 
ing on that branch of the business, in a more extensive manner than 
has yet been erected in this city. Those who are pleased to encourage 
this undertaking, may depend on being supplied with wool hats of 
different kinds, manufactured in the best and neatest manner, and 
at the lowest prices. Allowances will be made to shop-keepers, and 
others, that take a quantity. Beaver and castor hats are also made 
& sold by him as usual. 



In December of that year, Caleb Hewes took onan indentured servant, Murray 
Eneas, for three years and six 
help at his new manufactory. 



Eneas, for three years and six months at £12.5. He probably needed additional 



In 1772, Caleb Hewes and Deborah sold the High Street property for £1700. 30 
By that time they probably lived in the property bought from Deborah's father's 
estate. In 1775, Caleb Hewes bought 400 acres of land in Philadelphia County 
from a John Reid for £180. The land's location is not clearly stated in the deed; 
however, "two City lots on the Schuylkill side of Philadelphia with one hundred 



27 Expenditure for Isaac Potts, Accounts of the Estate of John Potts, Deceased, May 27, 
1773, Potts Papers, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

28 Advertisements, The Pennsylvania Gazette, 1771. 

29 Genealogical Publishing Co., Record of Indentures of Individuals Bound out as 
Apprentices, Servants, Etc. in Philadelphia, Pa., by Mayor John Gibson 1771-1772 and 
Mayor William Fisher, 1773 (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1793), p. 36. 

30 Land Deeds, Philadelphia County, Caleb Hewes to Joshua Cresson, November 6, 1772, 
PCC. 

31 Land Deeds, Philadelphia County, John Reed to Caleb Hewes, November 1, 1775, PCC. 



13 



acres of Liberty Land [Northern Liberties?]," which may have been included in 
Hewes' purchase, are mentioned. 



The tax records provide a somewhat confusing picture because there were two 
Caleb Hewes (Hughes) in Philadelphia County, one a hatter (who married 
Deborah Potts), the other a tailor. 

In 1774 a Caleb Hewes paid a provincial tax (31.10.0) on land in Northern 
Liberties, east part. This Hewes is probably the hatter because the tailor does 
not appear in land deeds and tax records until the 1780s. From 1779 until 1782 
a variety of renters paid taxes on the property in the Dock Ward, south part, 
belonging to Caleb Hewes' estate. In 1780 and 1781 renters also paid property 
taxes in the Mulberry Ward, west part, for the Caleb Hewes estate. A Caleb 
Hewes also paid taxes on land in Douglas Township (Pottstown area) in 
Philadelphia County in 1780. 32 

The next existing 18th century record of Caleb Hewes, hatter, and Deborah, his 
wife, is a land deed dated May 8, 1782. It reads "...Between Caleb Hewes of 
Pottstown in the County of Philadelphia hatter and Deborah his wife of, the one 
Part, and John Angus of the City of Philadelphia mariner of the other part." The 
Hewes sold their Lombard Street property to John Angus for £1,200. This 
property is the same one they purchased (through an intermediary Jonathon 
Brown) from Deborah's father's estate. 

Exactly what Hewes did during the war is not clear. By 1782 he was established 
in Pottstown as a hatter; he most likely moved to the Pottstown area with 
Deborah in the late 1770s. Caleb may have still been in Philadelphia during 
the British occupation and was, therefore, unavailable to sign the rent receipt 
for George Washington. Married women rarely signed business receipts if their 
husbands were nearby. 

After 1782, no records exist for the Caleb Hewes family. The 1800 census 
records for Douglas Township, Philadelphia County, list a Caleb Hughes. 34 No 
males over age 45 are listed, therefore, it is probably not the same family. (Caleb 
would have been more than 60 years old.) It could be the family of a son. 



32 Ibid. 

33 Land Deeds, Philadelphia County, Caleb Hewes to John Angus, May 8, 1782, PCC. 

34 Ronald Jackson, ed., and Gary Teeples, Pennsylvania 1800 Census Index (Salt Lake 
City, Utah: Dora Press, 1972). 



14 



Valley Forge Headquarters, 1777/78 

When General Washington leased the Isaac Potts house in Valley Forge for his 
headquarters, it was occupied by Mrs. Deborah Hewes and at least two 
children — Rebecca Potts, age 19, and Mary Hewes, age 10 — and possibly as 
many as five children if William Potts (age 17), Anna Ellis (age 12 or less), and 
a male Hewes child are included. Caleb Hewes may also have been in the house. 

Although the house was spacious enough for the Hewes family, Washington's 
military entourage was cramped. The few written references to the Valley Forge 
Headquarters indicate tight quarters. Washington wrote, when in his New 
Windsor, New York, headquarters, "I am in very confined Quarters, little better 
than those of Valley Forge, but such as they are I shall welcome into them your 
friends...." 35 

Because the size of the Valley Forge Headquarters was small and Deborah 
Hewes had nearby close relatives in Pottstown, it is unlikely that the Hewes 
family remained in their house while Washington was there. Whether or not 
they remained is not documented. Rebecca Potts' remembrance of sitting with 
Mrs. Washington certainly suggests that the Hewes had some contact with 
Martha Washington. Potts family tradition places Martha Washington at the 
Potts mansion in Pottstown during the encampment. Rebecca Potts possibly 
remembered a visit Mrs. Washington made to Pottstown. 

The Military Family. General Washington's Family at Valley Forge included 
aides, secretaries, officers from the Life Guard, Martha Washington (she arrived 
in early February), and many servants. Because the number of visitors and 
people on missions or leave fluctuated, an exact number of people staying in the 
house at any one time is not known. The aides, secretaries, and some servants 
probably stayed in the house while the officers of the Life Guard would have 
stayed in nearby huts. 

Information about Washington's office staff and servants follows. 

Lt. Col. John Fitzgerald from Virginia was an aide-de-camp to General 
Washington from November 1776 to July 1778. Correspondence from head- 
quarters in Fitzgerald's handwriting can be found in December 1777 and 



35 Washington to Lafayette, New Windsor, December 14, 1780, in John C. Fitzpatrick, 
ed., The Writings of Washington from Original Manuscript Sources, 1745-1799 
(Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1931-1934), 20:475. 

36 Brochure, Pottsgrove Mansion, Pottstown, Pennsylvania, administered by The 
Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. 



15 



January 1778. In early February, he was sent with letters to Virginia and on 
his return trip went to York, Pennsylvania. No correspondence in his hand 
appears from February to June 1778. He probably did not spend much time at 
headquarters during that period. 

Capt. Caleb Gibbs (d. 1818) from Rhode Island was captain of the commander- 
in-chiefs guard as well as a special aide on the general's staff from March 1776 
to December 1780. Gibbs, as previously mentioned, probably was not housed 
in the headquarters building although he ate his meals there. Gibbs' major 
duties included keeping the Family's expense accounts and ordering food and 
other supplies for the Family. According to Gibbs' accounts, he travelled to 
Albany with Alexander Hamilton in January of 1778 and to Reading and 
Lancaster in April of that year. Gibbs probably also made many shorter trips 
to secure supplies. A June 18, 1778, entry in the expense accounts reads: "To 
cash paid for expenses for going in the country to procure necessaries for the 
Family." 38 

Lt. William Colfax of Connecticut was one of the officers of the guard and may 
have eaten meals with the Family and been called on for special duties. He 
probably stayed in one of the nearby huts. No correspondence appears in his 
handwriting for this period. 

Lt. Col. Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804) was a captain with the New York 
artillery before he joined Washington's staff as his principal aide-de-camp on 
March 1, 1777. He remained on the general's staff until December 1783. John 
Fitzpatrick, editor of Washington's writings, found that Hamilton was usually 
the aide assigned to draft letters to Congress, governors, and state legisla- 
tures. Hamilton, who spoke French, also translated documents when needed. 
He and John Laurens assisted Gen. Friedrich von Steuben in revising the drill 
regulations. 

Lt. Col. Robert Hanson Harrison (1745-90), a jurist from Maryland, was a 
lieutenant with the 3d Virginia in September 1775. He then served as General 
Washington's military secretary from November 5, 1775, to March 25, 1781, 
with the rank of lieutenant colonel. At first, Harrison's skills did not meet all 



37 Washington Expense Accounts, January 1778 and April 1778, Washington Papers, LC. 

38 Ibid., June 18, 1778. 

39 Fitzpatrick, ed., Writings of Washington, p. xiv. 



16 



of General Washington's requirements. He wrote of his doubts about Harrison's 
abilities (November 20, 1775). This excerpt provides an idea of what was 
expected from an aide: 

Mr. Harrison, though sensible, clever and perfectly confidential, has 
never yet moved upon so large a scale as to comprehend at one view 
the diversity of matter which comes before me, so as to afford me that 
ready assistance which every man in my situation must stand more 
or less in need of. 

Harrison's skills improved, and he remained on the general's staff until he 
became chief justice of the General Court of Maryland in 1781. He and Capt. 
Tench Tilghman were responsible for more than half of the correspondence sent 
out from Valley Forge Headquarters. 

Lt. Col. John Laurens (1754-82) from South Carolina began working as a 
volunteer aide to General Washington, September 6, 1777. His father, Henry 
Laurens, served as president of the Continental Congress in 1777-78. John 
Laurens became a lieutenant colonel in 1778 and remained on the general's staff 
until 1782. Laurens' skill in French earned him a mission to France in 1780 to 
procure money and supplies. Laurens was noted for his recklessness and was 
reportedly used by Washington for dangerous and secret missions. He was 
killed in a skirmish near the end of the war. After Tilghman and Harrison, 
Laurens was the most prolific of the penmen at headquarters. Approximately 
15% of the correspondence from Valley Forge Headquarters is in Laurens' 
handwriting. 

Capt. George Lewis (d. 1821) from Virginia, George Washington's favorite 
nephew, was a special aide and a captain of the 3d Continental Dragoons from 
December 12, 1776. Because Captain Lewis was with the commander-in-chiefs 
guard, he was probably quartered in an officers' hut instead of at headquarters. 
Captain Lewis did not assist with the correspondence but occasionally per- 
formed special tasks for General Washington. One of the major duties of 



40 Washington to Joseph Reed, November 20, 1775, in Fitzpatrick, ed., Writings of 
Washington, 4:104. 

41 Charles Coleman Sellers, Portraits and Miniatures by Charles Willson Peale 
(Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1952), p. 123. 



17 



Washington's guards was to protect and transport the general's baggage. 
According to a letter from Washington to Lewis (January 11, 1778), Lewis was 
put in charge of sending the general's baggage from Newtown to Valley Forge. 
A week later an entry in the expense accounts shows the general's baggage (or 
most of it) had arrived. When Washington wrote to Lewis, he also offered him 
a leave of absence to return to Virginia until his health improved. Another letter 
from Washington from headquarters on May 1, 1778, again refers to Captain 
Lewis. Washington wrote: 

I approve of your employing Officers to purchase Horses [?] in 
preference to the common dealers in that way, and as you seem to 
think that Captn. Lewis can be particularly useful to you, I shall send 
him back to Virginia. 

First Lt. Henry P. Livingston (from New York) joined the commander-in- 
chiefs guard June 12, 1777. He became a captain December 4, 1778, and 
resigned March 26, 1779. He was probably quartered in an officers' hut with 
the guard rather than at headquarters. One letter of Washington's correspon- 
dence (January 5, 1778) is in Livingston's handwriting. Although he was not 
responsible for much correspondence, he may have performed other duties such 
as procuring supplies for the Family or delivering orders and letters. 

Dr. James McHenry (1753-1816) was a surgeon with the 5th Pennsylvania 
Battalion beginning August 10, 1776. He became a prisoner of war on parole 
November 16, 1776, until exchanged March 5, 1778. He was at Valley Forge by 
April 26, 1778, when Charles Willson Peale noted in his diary "Doctr. McHenry 
sat for his miniature." Peale also did a miniature of McHenry^ wife, possibly 
at the same time. l Margaret McHenry may have been at Valley Forge with 
James. Whether or not they were staying at headquarters is not known. On 
May 15, 1778, James McHenry was appointed assistant secretary to the com- 
mander-in-chief. During May and June at Valley Forge much of the correspon- 



42 Washington to Captain Lewis, January 11, 1778, in Fitzpatrick, ed., Writings of 
Washington, 10:290. 

43 Washington to Colonel Baylor, May 1, 1778, in Fitzpatrick, ed., Writings of Washington, 
11:339. 

44 Sellers, Portraits and Miniatures, p. 135. 

45 Ibid. 



18 



dence is in McHenrys handwriting. John Fitzpatrick, editor of Washington's 
writings, wrote that new staff members usually performed the bulk of the 
correspondence work for a few weeks. 

Lt. Col. Richard Kidder Meade (1746-1805) from Virginia was appointed 
aide-de-camp to Washington March 12, 1777. As captain of the 2d Virginia, in 
1775 he participated in the removal of arms from Lord Dunmore's house to the 
magazine at Williamsburg and in the same year commanded a company at the 
battle of Great Bridge, Virginia. He remained on Washington's staff until 
December 1783. Meade spent a great deal of his time on horseback as an aide 
to Washington. In several letters, Washington mentioned sending Meade as a 
messenger. On January 31, 1778, Meade was sent to meet Mrs. Washington 
and to escort her back to headquarters in February. The general orders for 
December 21, 1777, mention that Colonel Meade was in charge of presenting 
the field officers with the model of the huts and directions for their placement. 
Approximately 7% of the correspondence from headquarters was in Meade's 
handwriting. 

Capt. Tench Tilghman (1744-86) from Maryland joined the army under 
Washington in early 1776 as captain of the Pennsylvania Battalion of the Flying 
Camp; in August 1776, he became military secretary and aide on the com- 
mander-in-chiefs staff as a volunteer. Earlier in the war, he served as secretary 
and treasurer of a commission sent in July 1775 by Congress to treat with the 
Six Nations and other northern Indians. The largest proportion of correspon- 
dence from the headquarters at Valley Forge is in Tilghman's handwriting. He 
was responsible for almost 30% of the correspondence. On May 30, 1781, he 
was commissioned lieutenant colonel, to take rank from April 1, 1777. He 
declined to take rank from an earlier date because of sensitivity to the 
precedence of his seniors in the service. 

Col. Joseph Reed (1741-85) of Pennsylvania drafted one letter to Congress, 
March 7, 1778, about the need for forage and wagons. Reed had been 
Washington's military secretary from July 4, 1775, to May 16, 1776. On June 
5, 1776, Reed was appointed adjutant general of the American Army with the 
rank of colonel. In that same year, he was chosen a member of the Pennsylvania 
Assembly and was acting chairman of the Committee of Safety. In 1777, he 
turned down the appointment of brigadier general of the Continental Army to 
remain with Washington as a volunteer aide. In 1777, however, he was elected 
to the Continental Congress and then appointed to the Congress's Committee 



46 Fitzpatrick, ed., Writings of Washington, pp. XLIV-XLV. 

47 Ibid., pp. 103, 104. 



19 



of Conference with the army at Valley Forge. The committee stayed at Moore 
Hall. Reed was probably called in to help with at least one letter, but did not 
remain at headquarters for any length of time. 

Lt. Col. Richard Varick (1753-1831) of New York became captain in the 1st 
New York Regiment in June 1775. In June 1776 he became aide-de-camp and 
military secretary to Maj. Gen. Philip Schuyler. September 25, 1776, he became 
deputy mustermaster general of the northern department. The following year, 
in April 1777, under the reorganized muster department, he became deputy 
commissary general of musters with the rank of lieutenant colonel until June 
1780. He then served as aide-de-camp to Maj. Gen. Benedict Arnold and in 1781 
was chosen by Washington as his recording secretary to organize and copy the 
headquarters records and correspondence. Three copies of letters in the 
Washington correspondence are in Varick's handwriting. They date February 
16, 1778, March 17, 1778, and April 4, 1778. These copies were made at the 
time the letter was written or one day later and should not be confused with 
Varick's 1781-83 transcripts. It is possible that Varick was operating from 
Valley Forge at this time. 

Lt. Col. John Walker (?-1809) from North Carolina was a captain of the 1st 
North Carolina, from September 1775. He was promoted to major April 26, 
1777, and on February 17, 1777, he became lieutenant colonel and aide-de-camp 
to General Washington. Heitman's Historical Register of Officers of the Con- 
tinental Army states that Walker resigned December 22, 1777. Two of 
Washington's letters drafted in May 1778, however, are in Walker's handwrit- 
ing. Perhaps he too remained as a volunteer aide. 

Household Staff at Headquarters. In addition to Washington's military Fami- 
ly and Mrs. Washington, headquarters also had a staff of servants. The expense 
accounts name five of these servants. In addition several servants probably 
served as cook's helpers, maids, and hostlers. There are some general references 
to Mrs. Thompson the housekeeper being given money for the "servants." 
Because the more important servants (the steward, the general's hostler, the 
cook, and the wash woman) are identified in the accounts by name, the refer- 
ences to "servants" probably indicate the presence of lower paid support staff. 

The Washingtons' personal servants do not appear in the expense accounts but, 
for example, Billy Lee, Washington's personal body servant, is known to have 
been with him throughout the war. Mrs. Washington probably travelled with 



20 



a body servant. Each of the aides would have had personal servants to take care 
of their clothes, horses, and other belongings. John Laurens' correspondence 
indicates that he had a servant named Berry for whom he occasionally requested 
clothing from home. Altogether, there were probably between 12 and 15 
servants in and out of headquarters. How many of them actually stayed at 
headquarters is not known; at night, however, the hallways, kitchen floor, and 
stable were likely occupied. 

Isaac the cook received £6 per month. In 1776 the expense accounts list Isaac 
as "negro Isaac servant. e A later account in 1777 refers to him as "Isaac the 



Cook." Next to the steward and housekeeper he was the best paid of the 
household servants. The position of cook was both a skilled and responsible job. 
Expensive, imported spices and sugar were often carefully doled out by the 
women of the household. In wartime all foodstuffs were precious commodities. 
Isaac would have prepared breakfast, a main meal at midday referred to as 
dinner, and usually a light meal (tea) in the evening. Occasionally Washington 
would have supper (a substantial meal similar to dinner). Washington rose 
early and went to bed early and was not in the habit of having supper, a meal 
that was usually served around nine o'clock. 

Dinner was the largest meal of the day, usually served at three o'clock. Isaac 
would certainly have had one or two helpers to prepare for this midday meal, 
which often had a sizeable attendance including headquarters staff, other 
officers, and visitors. 

Patrick McGuire was General Washington's steward until March 6, 1778, when 
he was dismissed. A house steward was generally in charge of all the male 
servants with the exception of the master's personal servant. The steward's 



48 John Laurens to Henry Laurens, December 15, 1777, in The Army Correspondence of 
Colonel John Laurens in the Years 1777-1778 (New York: The Bradford Club, 1867), p. 
93. 

49 Washington Expense Accounts, October 16, 1776, Washington Papers, LC. 

50 Ibid., February 14, 1778. 

51 Ibid., March 6, 1778. 



21 



main job was purchasing those items consumed in the house and keeping 
records. The expense accounts for example show McGuire purchasing gloves 
for General Washington. A May 7, 1777, entry in the expense accounts suggests 
when he was first hired. It reads "cash paid Mr. McGuire to bear his expense 
to headquarters as steward." Washington wrote of McGuire: 

He was hired about twelve months ago, to act as steward in my family, 
in which station he continued until a few weeks past, when I was 
obliged to dismiss him, and I have the greatest reason to believe, that 
during the whole time of his employ, he took every opportunity of 
defrauding me. He is given to liquor, and where he dares take the 
liberty, very insolent. 

The records do not indicate whether another steward was hired. 

Frank the hostler appears in the expense accounts from July 28, 1777, through 
February 14, 1778. An August 8, 1777, entry specifies him as the "Genls 
hostler." At the same time Frank appears in the records, references to John 
the hostler cease. Frank probably replaced John. He would have been respon- 
sible for the general's horses, saddlery, and equipage. A May 17, 1777, expense 
account entry records payment for mending the Phaeton. 

An entry in Major Gibbs' receipt book dated July 9, 1776, reads, "This day Mrs. 
Thompson came to keep house for his Excellency General Washington." Mrs. 
Elizabeth Thompson remained with General Washington as housekeeper of his 
various headquarters until the summer of 1781 when a receipt dated August 
28, signed by Mrs. Thompson, recorded her payment of 25 guineas for "what is 
due to me from the Public for my Services whilst in the Family of the Gen'l." 



52 Ibid., May 7, 1777. 



53 Washington to Thomas Wharton, Jr., April 17, 1778, in Fitzpatrick, ed., Writings of 
Washington, p. 267-268. 

54 Washington Expense Accounts, August 8, 1777, Washington Papers, LC. 

55 Ibid., May 17, 1777. 

56 Ibid., July 9, 1776. 

57 Ibid., August 28, 1776. 



22 



Mrs. Thompson was responsible for all the female servants of the household and 
possibly the general running of the household after McGuire's dismissal. 
Entries in the expense accounts show that among her duties, on January 10, 
1777, Mrs. Thompson purchased "sundries"; on June 5, 1778, she purchased 
"small articles" for the Family; and an entry of October 7, 1776, records her 
paying and dismissing a "servant girl." She supervised the daily maids and 
wash women and kept track of the household linens and culinary and domestic 
utensils. She may have been responsible for keeping accounts of the food 
supplies after McGuire left and would have ordered the daily food in consult- 
ation with Mrs. Washington. 

In February 1778, Margaret Thomas was paid "for washing done for his 
Excellency Gen. Washington October 20, 1776, to February 20, 1778, including 
servants £28. .17. .6." She was evidently employed full time and probably did 
washing for all the Headquarters Family. She may have also had an assistant. 
In April 1776 the housekeeper, Mrs. Smith, paid one wash woman for doing Mrs. 
Washington's "small clothes," the "Genl cloaths: 63 doz at 5/6," and "counter- 
pins" and another wash woman for seven weeks of washing "Mr. Lewis's 
cloaths" and for the "Gen! cloaths 55 doz 3/6." These bills indicate a large 
quantity of laundry. In addition to clothing the wash woman would have 
washed the household linens and tablecloths at least once a week. The many 
people at headquarters must have necessitated daily washing and/or ironing. 

Billy Lee served as Washington's man-servant for many years and was with him 
throughout the war. His main duties would have been seeing to Washington's 
personal needs, powdering his hair, laying out his clothes, and assisting him to 
wash and dress. 

The above servants were the more important ones in the household, and, 
therefore, their presence is recorded. Housemaids or boys and extra help with 
cooking and washing would also have been needed. In the expense records for 
1776 three additional female servants are mentioned: "Negro Hannah," "Ser- 



58 Ibid., January 10, 1777, June 5, 1778, and October 7, 1776. 

59 Ibid., February 20, 1778. 

60 Ibid., April 16, 1776. 



23 



CI 

vant Lydia, Molatto," and "Servant Jenny." Hannah and Jenny are again 
mentioned in the accounts in early 1777. 

Daily Life at Headquarters. At Mount Vernon, General Washington was a man 
of very regular habits, and the available evidence indicates those habits were 
maintained throughout the war. He rose early, shaved in his office to avoid 
disturbing Mrs. Washington, worked, then breakfasted with Mrs. Washington 
at about seven o'clock in the morning. Washington described his routine at 
Mount Vernon to James McHenry: 

...breakfast (a little after seven o'clock, about the time I presume you 
are taking leave of Mrs. McHenry) is ready, that, this being over, I 
mount my horse and ride around my farms, which employs me until 
it is time to dress for dinner.... The usual time of sitting at table, a 
walk, and tea brings me within the dawn of candlelight.... 

At headquarters, he would return to work after breakfast until the dinner hour, 
between two and three o'clock in the afternoon. Dinner was usually very 
lengthy, often lasting until teatime. A 1785 account of dining with General 
Washington explains his usual habits: 

At three dinner was on the table. ..everything was set off with a 
peculiar taste and at the same time very neat and plain. The General 
sent the bottle about pretty freely after dinner, and gave success to 
the navigation of the Potomac for his toast.... 

After tea the General Washington retired to his study and left us with 
the President, his Lady, and the rest of the company. If he had not 
been anxious to hear the news of Congress from Mr. Lee, most 
probably he would not have returned to supper but gone to bed at his 



61 Ibid., August 14, 1776, October 7, 1776, and October 13, 1776. 

62 Ibid., January 7, 1777, February 13, 1777, April 20, 1777, and June 3, 1777. 

63 Washington to James McHenry, May 24, 1797, in Fitzpatrick, ed., Writings of 
Washington, 35:455-456. 



24 



usual hour, nine o'clock — for he seldom makes any ceremony. We had 
a very elegant supper about that time.... 

At Morristown there are accounts of Washington and other officers and their 
ladies forming riding parties after dinner. 

The Marquis de Chastellux wrote of dining with General Washington at his New 
Windsor headquarters in 1780: 

The dinner was excellent; tea succeeded dinner, and conversation 
succeeded tea, and lasted till Supper- War was frequently the subject: 
on asking the General which of our professional books he read with 
the most pleasure, he answered me that they were the King of 
Prussia's Instruction to his Generals, and the Tactics of M. de 
Guibert; from which I concluded that he knew as well how to select 
his authors as to profit by them. 

Chastellux also wrote of staying at headquarters in Newburgh in 1782: 

[December 5:] The largest room in it, which had served as the owner's 
family parlor and which General Washington has converted into his 
dining room, is in truth fairly spacious, but... I found the company 
assembled in a rather small room which served as the "parlour." At 
nine o'clock supper was served, and when the hour of bedtime came, 
I found that the chamber to which the General conducted me, was 
this very parlor, in which he had just had a campbed set up. 

[December 6:] We assembled at breakfast the next morning at ten, 
during which interval my bed was folded up and my chamber became 
the sitting room for the whole afternoon, for American manners do 
not admit of a bed in the room in which company is received, 
especially when there are women.... The day I remained at head- 
quarters was passed either at table or in conversation. 



64 "Quebec to Carolina in 1785-1786, Being the Travel Diary and Observations of Robert 
Hunter, Jr.," a young merchant of London, Huntington Library, 1943, p. 191-198. Copy 
in Mount Vernon files, Mount Vernon, Virginia. 

65 See Vera B. Craig and Ralph H. Lewis, "Furnishings Plan for the Ford Mansion" 
(1779-1780), July 1976. 

66 Marquis de Chastellux, Travels in North America, Howard C. Rich, Jr., ed. (Chapel 
Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1963), 2:513-514. 

67 Ibid. 



25 



The Valley Forge Headquarters was an extremely busy and crowded place. In 
those hours before dinner Washington and his aides conducted an extraordinary 
amount of business. The daily orders and correspondence cover such issues as 
camp sanitation, foraging, procurement of supplies and money from Congress, 
matters of military discipline, promotions, and military strategy. The 18th 
century military commander was expected to handle a wide range of military 
matters. 

A few contemporary accounts provide an inkling of this activity. Tench 
Tilghman wrote to Robert Morris turning down an invitation to visit: 

I cannot promise myself the pleasure of acceptingyour kind invitation 
to spend a few days at Manheim. Winter Quarters is to us, what a 
stoppage of Navigation used to be to you rather an increase of 
Business in the Way of Paper, Pens and Ink.... 

John Laurens wrote in a letter to his father, President of Congress: 

(Head Quarters, 3d Jan., 1778)... 

I have taken the liberty of writing to you my dear father on this 
subject, in order that you might be more minutely acquainted with 
it. 

I have been obliged to do it in a hurry, and in a small, noisy, crowded 
room. I have succeeded so far with secrecy, and dare not venture upon 
a more decent copy. I hope, therefore, that you will excuse my letter, 
and accept it in its present dress. 

Messengers and visitors were also constantly coming and going. 

Mrs . Washington's arrival probably made life at headquarters easier for General 
Washington. Many of the visitors (those who came on non-military matters) 
would have been entertained by her, thus easing the general's social respon- 
sibilities. Elizabeth Drinker's journal records an April visit to Valley Forge 
Headquarters to see General Washington. While she saw the general at dinner 
and briefly about her business, the journal indicates that most of her time at 
headquarters was spent with Mrs. Washington. She wrote: 



68 Tench Tilghman to Robert Morris, February 2, 1778, Valley Forge National Historical 
Park files, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. 

69 Laurens, Army Correspondence, pp. 101-104. 



26 



...we arrived about 1/2 past one, requested an audience with the 
General — set with his wife (a social pretty kind of woman) until he 
came in.. .we had an elegant dinner, which was soon over: when we 
went out with ye Gen.l wife up to her Chamber, and saw no more of 

, • 70 J 

him.... 

Mrs. Washington spent time visiting with other officers' wives and possibly some 
prominent local residents. The French volunteer, Pierre Etienne Du Ponceau 
wrote of Mrs. Washington, Mrs. Greene, Lady Kitty Stirling, and Miss Nancy 
Brown (a friend of Lady Stirling's) meeting at each other's quarters and 
spending evenings "...in conversation over a dish of tea or coffee. There were no 
levees or formal soirees; no dancing, card playing, or amusements of any kind 
except singing. Every gentleman or lady who could sing was called upon in turn 
for a song." 

There is an oral tradition that Mrs. Washington stayed in the Potts' mansion 
in Pottsgrove. The majority of her time, however, was probably spent running 
the household at Valley Forge. At Mount Vernon she was very involved with 
superintending the household activities and she very likely took on those same 
responsibilities at Valley Forge. Her presence may have had something to do 
with the fact that no steward was hired to replace Patrick McGuire, dismissed 
in March. It was her habit at Mount Vernon to inspect all the household 
departments every morning including the kitchen, where she ordered the day's 
food and oversaw the preparation of dough for bread baking. 

In a household such as headquarters where staff was coming and going, it was 
most likely Mrs. Washington who decided when beds were to be put up or taken 
down and where people were to be put. Just keeping track of the household 
linens or supervising the housekeeper's records would have been a major task. 
In a letter written by Martha in 1792 to Fanny Basset at Mount Vernon, she 
indicates the extent of her involvement in housekeeping. 

I wish [my] dear Fanny that you would make Frank clanse the House 
from the garret to the sellers — have all the Beds aird and mended 
and the Bed Clothes of every kind made very clean and the Bedsteads 
also wett scolde — and the low bedsteads put up to be ready to carry 
out of one room into an other as you know they are often wanted — I 



70 Elizabeth Drinker Journal, April 16, 1778, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia. 

71 "Autobiographical Letters of Peter S. Du Ponceau," The Pennsylvania Magazine of 
History and Biography, 40:179. 

72 The Founders, Washington Committee for Historic Mount Vernon, The Mount Vernon 
Cookbook (Memphis, Tennessee: Wimmes Brothers Books, 1984), p. 12. 



27 



have not a doubt but we shall have company all the time we are at 
home. 

I wish you to have all the china looked over, the closet clansed and 
the glasses all washed and every thing in the closet as clean as can 
be then they will be ready when wanted with much less trouble than 
to have them to [look] for when every in a hurry they may be wanted. 

I doe not wish to have the clouded cotton made in to chear covers — nor 
the chares stuffed, or done anything to, till I come home as it is 
probable that the old covers will last as long as I shall try at home.... 

Impress it on the gardner to have every thing in his garden that will 
be necessary in the House keeping way — as vegetables is the best part 
of our living in the country. 

I dare say you have made the Table clothes as well as they can be 
done — as to the window curtains and bed curtain they may as well be 
put up. I shall send a carpit for our parlor so that it will be ready by 
the time I get there if the vessel leves this on Tuesday as we expect. 

Several special entertainments were held at Valley Forge — a small celebration 
at headquarters on February 22 for Washington's birthday, a special dinner in 
honor of Maj. Gen. Charles Lee when prisoners were exchanged, and a celebra- 
tion May 6 involving the whole camp when the French joined the war against 
Great Britain. The latter entertainment for the officers took place at General 
Arnold's where a "Cold Colation" was set up. 

The headquarters food purchases, although ample in quantity, were not ex- 
travagant and do not indicate that lavish multi-course meals were served. By 
the standards of the day Washington's dinners were simple and could even be 
considered meager. With the shortage of supplies and the attendant morale 
problems, it seems unlikely that Washington would have entertained on any 
kind of a grand scale. Dinners at headquarters included a large number of 
people. Dinner was a time for Washington to get together with his staff and 
officers from the field. Much of the daily business was probably discussed at 
dinner. 



73 Martha Washington to Fanny Basset, Philadelphia, July 1, 1792, copy in Mount Vernon 
files, Mount Vernon, Virginia. 

74 Charles Willson Peale, "Diary," MS, American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. May 
6, 1778. 



28 



Food purchases show that the variety of dishes served was limited. A typical 
18th century Virginia dinner for 18 people would have as many as 15 different 
dishes per course with 2 or 3 courses (usually a main course and a dessert 
course). More people would have necessitated more variety. At Valley Forge 
half of that number of dishes at best was probably the standard, and there may 
have been only one course. For example, purchases made February 21 for 
Washington's birthday dinner consisted of fowls, partridges, onions, potatoes, 
cabbages, turnips, parsnips, and eggs (probably for sauces and puddings). A 
large quantity of veal was purchased on the 18th and veal may have also been 
offered on the menu for the 22d. Most of the daily food purchases at Valley 
Forge show less variety. A special effort was probably made in honor of 
Washington's birthday. Quantities and varieties, however, changed with the 
seasons. Occasionally a special gift of food would be sent to Washington; 
January 2 a present of rock fish was sent to headquarters. On March 27, Lord 
Stirling sent Washington oysters. This entry is the only one that mentions 
oysters, a fairly common item on the 18th century menu. The lack of available 
foodstuffs and the difficulties of supplying the Valley Forge encampment are 
evident in Washington's own menus. 



75 Washington Expense Accounts, February 21, 1778, Washington Papers, LC. 

76 Ibid., February 18, 1778. 

77 Ibid., January 2, 1778. 

78 Ibid., March 27, 1778. 

79 A further analysis of the food served at headquarters is contained in the sections on the 
kitchen and dining room in the plan. 



29 



EVIDENCE OF ROOM USE AND ORIGINAL FURNISHINGS 



Wills and Inventories 

The most significant available will and inventory is that of Thomas Potts, 
Deborah Hewes' first husband. An extensive search in Philadelphia, 
Montgomery, Chester, Delaware, Bucks, Berks, and Lycoming counties failed 
to locate a Hewes will or inventory. One land deed refers to Caleb or 
Deborah Hewes living in Pottstown in 1782; then they disappear from the 
records. The Hewes may have been living on land Deborah retained rights to 
through her widowhood, and at her death it reverted to her children; there- 
fore, there would be no inventories. 

It is very likely that Deborah retained the items listed in Potts' will. She 
may have updated some of her furnishings when she moved to Philadelphia, 
but it is unlikely that she made many changes because Thomas Potts ap- 
pears to have been wealthier than Caleb Hewes. 

Several other family members' wills and inventories are included here for 
comparison with Thomas Potts' will and inventory. Deborah's father's will 
specified that his furnishings be sold; Deborah possibly purchased some of 
his furnishings. She and Caleb did purchase one of her father's Philadelphia 
properties. 

Isaac Potts probably never lived in the Valley Forge house, but his inventory 
and the wills of several other Potts relatives, William (possibly Thomas Potts' 
son?), John (brother to Thomas), and Thomas Potts (John's son), provide a 
characteristic list of furnishings for this area and the Potts/Hewes income 
level. In the following transcripts, the original spelling is retained, but 
capitalization and punctuation have been modernized. 

(1) 1762, April 26. Thomas Potts' Will, Potts Papers, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania. 

Be it remembered that I, Thomas Potts of Colebrookdale doe make 
this [my] last will and testament in manor following, that is to say, 
first I order my part of Spring Forge with the lands thereunto 
belonging and my part of Mountplesant lands with my plantation 
and lands between Sculkill, Manatomy to be sold and the money 
ariseing therefrom after my just debts are paid to be devided 
amongst my seven children, reserving fifty pounds more for each of 
my sons then my daughters and it is my will that my house in 
Philad. be sold and devided amonst my first wife's children after 
my daughter Magdalene arrives at the age of eightten years, and I 
order my part of the furnace with the lands together with the 
house and lands I now live on to be rented out tell my son David ar- 
rives at the age of twenty one years and then, if he incline to rent, 



30 



to have the refusell and it is my will that my mother be paid out of 
the rent of my furnace thirty pounds a year, it being the money or- 
dered by my father's will which money I undertuck to pay during 
her life and I further order that my mother have privilege to cutt 
fire wood of my land adioyning the furnace during her life and it is 
my will that my beloved wife Debrough Potts receave the rents of 
my furnace for bringing up my children tell the youngest arrive at 
the age of fourteen years, at which time I order my executors 
hereafter named to sell the same if they think it will be most to the 
advantage of my wife and children and I doe constatute and ap- 
point my beloved frends William Dewees sener of White Marsh 
Esq. and Thomas Rutter to be my executors to this my last will 
and testament in testamoney wareof I have hereunto set my hand 
and seal this twenteth day of Aprill one thousand seven hundred 
and sixty two — Thos. Potts Tseal] Witness present Derrick 
Cleaver, Lewis Walker, John Cleaver, 

Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, 

The 26th day of April Anno Domini 1762. Then personally ap- 
peared Derrick Cleaver and Lewis Walker, two of the subscribing 
witnesses to the afore written will who (being of the people called 
Quakers) upon their solemn affirmation according to law did 
declare and say that they were both of them present and saw and 
heard Thomas Potts, the testator in the same will named, sign seal 
publish and declare the same to be his last will and testament and 
that at the time of the doing thereof he was of sound mind memory 
and understanding as they verily believe and further that the 
names Derrick Cleaver and Lewis Walker thereto subscribed are of 
the proper hand writing respectively of the said affirmants by 
them subscribed as witnesses thereto in the presence of each other 
(and of John Cleaver the other subscribing witness) and at the re- 
quest and in the pressence of the said testator — 

Examined James Read D. Regr. 

Register General's Office Reading Berks County 26th April 1762 
Letters Testamentary in common form under the [seal] of the said 
office on the will afore [written of] the said Thomas Potts deceased 
were granted to [William] Dewees and Thomas Rutter, executors 
therein named. They being first solemnly sworn [there Ito accord- 
ing to law. Inventory to be exhibited on or before the twenty[e]th 
day of May next and an account of [their] administration when 
thereunto recquired — 

Registered — and examined by 
James Read D. Regr. 

(2) 1762, May 7. Thomas Potts' Inventory, Potts Papers, Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania. For facsimile copy, see Appendix II. 

An Inventory of the Goods and Chatles belonging to the Estate of 
the late Thomas Potts taken & apraised by the subscribers this 7 
day of May 1762. 



31 



Cash wearing apperal & 2 watches 

A desk and Book Case 

An eight day Clock 

one Looking Glass 

6 Leather bottom Chairs 

a Corner Cupboard 

2 Sets of Chainey Cups & Saucers 6 Plates, 4 

glasses 4 bowls on ye Mantle piece 
2 Large ovel Tables 
A silver Tankard 
A Tea Chest 
Hand Irons, Shovels & Tongs 

1 piece of homespun, 2 pes. Gartering Tape 

mohair & knives 

6 Rush bottom Chairs 
a Desk 

a Chest of Drawers 

a Stand 

a Tea Table 

A Square Table 50/ and a Dressing do. 40/ 

a woman's Saddle and bridle 

a Small Looking Glass 

7 Pair Sheets & 3 Table Cloaths &c. 
a Feather Bed & bedstead &c. 

one ditto 

a bed Second bottom &c. in ye garret 

an Arm Chair 

2 Leather Trunks 
Tow Linen in the garret 

an old bed 4 Blankets & a Rugg 

3 Cover Lids & 2 Blanketts 

1 Spinning wheel 1 Large ditto 
9 Chairs 

an Ovel Table in the Common Room 

A Common Tea Table 

38 Pair mens Shoes @ 5/ 

a bed in the Store &c. 

a prospect of the City of Philada. 

2 felt hatts 

a Remnant of Cloath 



2 pair Pistols 

2 bedsteads in ye Store Loft 

A Cross Cut Saw 

4 Large Silver Spoons 3 Lg Tea ditto & Tongs 

Coffee & Tea Cups in the Corner Cupboard 

71 [pc?] Steel 

Potts & Kettles in the Store Loft in Company 

Pewter Candle sticks & kitchen furniture 

a Brass Kettle 

a new Tea Cattle & 4 Candle sticks 

hand Irons in the Store 

2 pair Stilliards 



£ 


s 


d 


102 


2 





14 








15 






5 






6 






2 


10 




2 


15 




4 






5 









10 




3 






1 


10 




1 


4 




5 







5 


10 







10 




1 


6 




4 


10 




3 







2 


10 




8 







7 


10 




7 






5 









5 








7 


6 


1 








3 


10 




3 


15 







9 




1 


8 




l) 


15 







7 


6 


9 


LO 




6 


15 







10 







8 




1 


10 




242 


7 





2 







1 










10 




5 


5 




1 







2 


12 




20 






12 


10 




1 


L5 




2 


2 







5 




1 


10 





32 



Tea Cups Soup Plates in the Common Room 10 

Shmiths Tools Treaces & all the old Iron Tongs 

&c. 15 5 

2 Chaff Beds, 2 Ruggs, 3 pair Sheets, 1 Table 

cloath 4 pillow Cases &c. 4 16 

3 Blanketts & 4 Ruggs in ye Barn 2 5 
a Waggon with 2 Sorrells, a Black and Roan 

Horse & gears 90 

1 ditto [description of horses occurs on tear in 

paper] wt geers 
a Cuting Box & Knife 

a Roan Calld Isaac, a black & an old gray Horse 
a plow and Shear &c. 
a Coal Waggon Chain & hind Axeltree 
an old Sleigh 
a Waggon 

an old mine cart body 
a Riding Horse, Sadie & Bridle 
a Negro Winch called Minn 
a Gunn with Brass along ye barrel 
a few Coals in the Coal House 
16 Ewes & Lamps ©14/ 
3 old Sheep® 117 
8 hoggs 
a Coal Waggon 
8 Cows ©70/ 
a Team Waggon and Geers that Negro Jo drives 

485 11 

a Negro man at Spring calld Toby 120 

wheat in the ground at the Furnace @30/p acre 

8 acres 12 

Rie at Spring Forge @27/p acre 30 acres 4010 

658 1 

JAMES BOONE 
JOHN PATTON 

(3) 1776, February 23. William Pyewell's Will, Register's Office, Philadel- 
phia County Courthouse, Philadelphia. 

In the name of God Amen. The twenty third day of Feb. 1766 in ye 
year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred & sixty six I, Wil- 
liam Pyewell of the City of Philadelphia Marchant, being of sound 
mind and memory and remembring the uncertainty of this tran- 
sitory life doe make and ordain this my Last Will and Testament, 
in manner and forme following revoking all other former will or 
wills & testaments by me made. 

Imprimus I bequeath my sole into the hands of Allmighty God my 
maker hopeing through the meritorious death and passion of my 
onely saviour Jesus Christ, to be everlastingly saved. 



HI 


o 





12 


18 


10 


1 




7 


10 


1 


5 


15 


10 





5 


24 





50 




1 


15 


1 


7 


( 




( 12 


17 


4 




6 


15 


28 




70 





33 



Item I bequeath my body to the earth to be therein decently interd 
att the directions of my executrs hereinafter mentioned 

Item As to what worldly substance God has been pleased to bless 
my endevours with I give to my three children John Pyewell, 
Deborah Potts, & Rebecca Pyewell. After my just debts & funerall 
charges are duly paid I order all my reall estate, that is my house 
in Lombard Street now tenanted by Wm. Shute soap boyler & 
chandler, and my smiths shop & appartments over the smiths shop 
and the lotts belonging to them both, ye said smiths shop joynes 
William Shutes house eastward, and likewise my house in Norris's 
Ally bought of Isaac Norris; I say I order all ye above mentioned 
three houses to be sold, and ye money arising from ye sale of the 
sd. houses & lotts to be equally devoided between my above men- 
tioned three children, Jno. Pyewell, Deborah Potts & Rebecca 
Pyewell, in equall proportion, they jointly [paying] a debt dew to 
the Loan Office of ye ground [ye] smiths shop stands on. 

I likewise order all my personal estate that is to say all my 
household furniture plate chiney &c to be sold and ye money aris- 
ing therefrom after all necessary charges are paid to be equally 
divided between my above mentioned three children John, 
Deborah & Rebecca in equall proportion. 

And I constitute my son Jno. Pyewell, my daughter Deborah Potts 
& my daughter Rebecca Pyewell to be my sole exectr. & executrixs. 
to this my Last Will & Testament, revoking all former will or wills 
made by me, and I farther order that my son Jno. Pyewell shall not 
charge his sisters anything for any extraordinary trouble he shall 
be att in fulfilling this my will. 

Item If my three children Jno., Deborah & Rebecca shall amicably 
agree to a partition or division of my three houses and lotts (Will) 
if not to be sold as above. In wittness whereof I have hereunto sett 
my hand and seall the day and date above written and if I shall 
make any addision or alteration hereafter I shall doe it by way of 
codicile. 

Wm. Pyewell 

Witness Psent 

Wm. Benning jur. 

Wm. Hopkins att. 

Prov'd Apl. 3d 1769 
all ye ex'cutors B.C. 

Philadelphia April 3d 1769 personally appeared William [Benning] 
and William Hopkins the two witnesses to the foregoing or within 
will and the said William Benning on oath and the said William 
Hopkins on affirmation according to law did declare and say that 
they saw & heard William Pyewell the testator therein named 
sign, seal, publish, and declare the same will for and as his last 
will and testament and that at the execution thereof he was of 



34 



sound disposing mind, memory, and understanding to the best of 
their knowledge and belief. 

Coram 

Benjamin Chew Regr. Genl. 

The Accompt of John Pywell, Deborah Potts, and Rebecca Pyewell 
executors of the last will and testament of William Pyewell late of 
the city of Philadelphia Gentleman deceased. 

Imprimis 

The said accomptants charge themselves with all and singular the 
goods chattels and credits of the sd. deceased, as mentioned in an 
inventory thereof remaining in the Register Generals office at 
Philada. amounting to £633.5. 

The said accomptants charge themselves with the following sums 
reced. exclusive of the said inventory. 

Vizt. 

from John Potts rent 

from Samuel Howell interest 

from Thomas Yardley rent 

for rent of a house in Norris's Alley 

from Thomas Yardly rent 

from Samuel Swan rent 

from T. Potts interest 

from Wm. Kepler interest 

from Jonathan Brown for a house and lot in 

Lombard Street sold him 695 

from Jonathan Brown for a house and lot sold 

him situate in Norris's Alley 470 

£ 1885 3 11 
Examin'd & pass'd Novr. 5th. 177[6?] 
Benjamin Chew Regr. Genl. 

Item 

The said accomptants pray allowance for their several payments 
and disbursements made out of the same as follows vizt. 

Paid for probate of the will i 

paid Thomas Yardley 

paid Mary Symonds 

paid David Chambers tax 

paid Hugh Henry 

paid Mary Leech 

paid Thomas Gordon 

paid George Marshall 

paid John Ord 

paid David Chambers tax 

paid Caleb Cash 

paid Joseph Dolby 



35 



34 


1 


7 




1 


15 


28 




4 


6 


5 


6 


1 


10 


5 





1 


5 
15 


9 


4 


7 
11 


4Vz 


2 


18 


6 


26 


7 


8Vz 


1 


10 




15 


4 
11 


4 


6 


18 


6 



paid Peter Dehaven tax 

paid Ann Purdue 

paid for the deceased coffin 

paid Arthur Donaldson 

paid Sarah Broughton 

paid Doctor Cadwalader 

paid John Moore 

paid John Pyewell 

paid John Pyewell 

paid John Pyewell 

paid Bryan Wilkinson for the tombstone 

paid the church warden for privilege 

paid for fixing up the tombstone 

by bond and int. due P. Syng 

paid for stating this account (of and to the 

Regr. Genl. for examining passing and copy 

under seal of office 1776 



3 






1 


10 




8 


10 




9 


— 


3 


3 


17 


10V£ 


4 


15 




1 


14 


8 


4 






1 


14 


6 


5 


8 




14 


3 


4 


10 






2 


15 


6 


40 


2 




1 


7 


6 



175 7 5Vz 



[crossed out] By an allowance made the accts. for their time and 
trouble in the administration of the estate 

Ballance on this settlement to be disposed of 

agreeable to the deced. will 1709 16 5 V2 

1885 3 11 
Philada. Novemr. 5th 177[6?] 
John Pyewell Caleb Hewes John Phillips 

(4) 1769, April 20. William Pywell's Inventory. 

Inventory of the goods and effects of William Pywell deceasd. taken 
& appraised this twentyeth day of Aprill 1769 

Wearing apparrell 

1 silver watch 

cash in ye desk 

bonds & notes 

plate oz/28 ptf20 @ 8/pr 

1 walnut desk £ 4. 10. 

1 case of drawrs 3. 

1 chamber table 0. 15 

9 leather bottom chairs 2. 10 

1 case of bottles 0. 10 

1 chest 0. 10 

1 feather bed, bolster & 
pillows & bedding 1 suit 
of bed & window cur- 
tains 5. 10 

1 large Bible 1 

1 old riding chair 1 



£ 20 





I) 


4 


10 





46 


[?] 


I) 


530 








11 


L0 





17 5 







Appraisd. the day & year above by 
Caleb Cash 
Joseph Ogden 



36 



633 5 



(5) 1802, November 29. William Potts' Inventory, Register's Office, Chester 
County Courthouse, West Chester, Pennsylvania. 

An Inventory of the goods and Chattels rights and Credits of Wil- 
liam Potts late of the Township of Tredyffrin in the County of 
Chester deceased Appraised the 29th of November Anno Domini 
1802— 

To his Waring Apparel i 

To 21 Sheep 

To 7 Hogs 8 Shoats & 4 pigs 

to 6 Cows and 2 Calves 

To 2 Horses 

To an old Windmill Cuting box & 1/2 bushel 

To a Quantity of Wheat & Rye in sheaf 

To D° of Oats 

To D° of Barley 

To an apple Mill 

To a quantity of Puttatoes 

To ye running Gears of a Waggon & Lot of 

[Gear?] Horse 
To a set of Smith's Tools 

To a lot of old Iron & sund[ries] in Smith Shop 
To 3 drawing Irons & [knives] 
To a Box of old Iron 
To a quantity of Indian corn 
To D° Buckwheat 
To Empty Corks in cast house loft 
To a plough Harrow & Wheel barrow 
To an old Waggon Wheel & sun[dries] 
To 2 Crow Bars 
To a Crosscut saw 
To about 16 acres of Wheat & Rye 
To a Ten plate Stove & sun[dries] in kichen 
To 8 Bags & Waggon Cover 
To a Walnut Dining Table 
To 1/2 dozen Rush bottom Chairs 
To a Cloath's press 
To a Looking Glass 
To a China Closet & Crockery Ware 
To sundry articles in ye Garret 
To a large Dressing Table 
To a Case of Drawers 
To 2 Arm Chairs & little Table 
To a Gun 
To sundry puter plates knives forks & 

sundfries] 
To 2 Brass & 2 Iron Candlesticks 
To Table linnen 
To Book Debt 
Sundry Articles given by Will to the Widow as 

follow viz — 
To 2 Feather Beds and Beding 



37 



15 








10 


10 





24 


15 





40 








40 








2 


5 





36 


10 





3 


7 


6 


2 


12 





2 


5 





6 








9 








8 


5 





3 











15 








3 


9 


18 


15 





5 


12 


6 





8 





1 


in 





1 


10 





1 


6 


3 


1 


2 


6 


40 








13 


2 


6 


2 


5 





2 


10 





1 


5 








15 





2 


5 





6 








12 


5 





2 


5 





6 











15 





1 








2 


16 


3 





\s 


9 


7 


10 





5 


12 


11 


20 









To a Beaureau 

To 1/2 dozen Chairs & sund[ries] 



3 15 

5 5 

£ 370 17 11 



Chester County for 



William Davis 
Thomas Walker 



On (the] 29th day of November 1802 before me the subscriber one 
of the Justices of the peace for said County, Came the above named 
Thomas Walker and being duly affirmed according to Law declared 
the aforegoing to be a Just & Conscionable appraisment of the 
goods and effects of William Potts afforesaid Dec that were 
produced to him for that purpose 

Affirmed before me the Day & Year above said. 

William Davis 
William Davis Esqr. was duly affirmed according to law before 

J. Allison D.Regr 

Nov. 29 th 1802 

(6) 1768, June 20. John Potts' Inventory (from James, Memorial of Thomas 
Potts, Jr.) 

Inventory of John Potts, 1768 
Subscribed before me the 20 th of June 1768 

HENRY PAWLING 
ENOCH DAVIS GEORGE DOUGLASS 

THOS HOCKLEY 
Inventory taken as follows, Viz 





£ 


s 


1 Bed Bedstead & Bedding 


9 




1 pair of handirons shovel & tongues 


1 




1 Looking Glass 


2 




1 Chamber table 


1 




8 Blankets 2 Coverlids & quilt 


10 




3 Trunks 


1 


2 


1 Couch 


1 




1 Bed Bedstead & Bedding 


7 




1 small ditto & ditto 


1 


10 


1 Carpet 


2 


10 


2 pair hand irons shovel & tongs 


1 


5 


1 small chest of drawers & looking glass 


4 


in 


1 Bed Bedstead & Bedding 


LO 




1 Case of drawers chest upon chest 


10 




1 Mahogany chamber table 


2 




1 Pair of Looking glasses 


10 




1 Bed Bedstead & Bedding 


M 




1 Looking Glass 


3 




2 Beds Bedsteads Bedding & Furniture 


30 




1 Chamber table 


1 


L0 


1 Looking glass 


2 


10 


1 Case of drawers chest upon chest 


6 




1 pair of handirons shovel & tongs 


1 


5 



38 



1 Large Dining table 


2 


10 


1 small ditto 


1 




1 pair handirons shovel & tongs 


3 




Plate furniture-silver & china ware 


200 




1 Tea table 


3 




1 Eight day clock 


12 




1 Dining table 


1 


10 


1 Looking glass 


2 


5 


1 Pair of handirons Shovel & Tongs 


3 




1 Walnut tea table 


1 




1 Table stand 




10 


6 Walnut Leather-bottom chairs 


3 


10 


6 ditto [Canvass?] bottom chairs 


8 




To ditto Damask bottom ditto 


12 


10 


6 Windsor chairs 


3 




6 Rush bottom chairs 


2 


5 


Kitchen furniture 


30 




1 set of Bed & window curtains 


10 




1 Desk, Book case & books 


8 




1 Easy Chair 


2 




2 Negro girls Margaret & Nancy 


75 




1 Large Horse dark bay saddle & bridle 


47 




2 Milch cows 


8 




A Jack, iron pot, & Coffee Mill 


3 


10 


2 Feather beds & Bedsteads 


10 




1 ditto ditto 


3 


10 


1 Case of Drawers & 1 arm chair 


1 




37-3/4 lbs. yarn 2/ 


2 


15 


1 Bushel Clover seed 


2 




3 Pictures & 2 old maps 


2 




A Couch and Mattrass 


5 




68 1/2 lbs wool 


3 


8 


3 old blankets 




15 


2 Riddles 




A 


Powder & Shott 


1 




1 Old Poplar Desk 




2 


9 yds cloth 3/ 


1 


7 


1 Walnut table 


2 




Negroes Bedding 


3 


5 


Two colts two years old 


25 




Two colts one year old 


20 




One bay & one brown horse 


30 




One old brown horse 


3 




One sorrel horse 


7 




One bay horse & two sets gears 


20 




Old gears 




15 


One baybail \?) faced horse 


22 


10 


One horse waggon & gears 


22 


10 


48 steers & cows 5 2 6 


246 




1 1 cows 60/ 


33 




Hay in the Barn & Barrack 


27 




Hay in the Meadow 


1(1 




1 Milch cow 


■1 




3 ditto 


9 


15 


45 sheep 6/ 


L3 


10 



39 



1 new ditto 


19 




One old waggon & broad wheel'd Cart 


11 




3 Ploughs 3 harrows & Swingle trees 


6 


10 


2 Working Oxen 


10 




1 Sow & 8 Pigs 


3 


5 


5 Shovels 5 weeding hoes & 3 falling axes 


1 


10 


2 Fowling pieces 


5 




2 old cross cut saws, scythe & cradle 


2 




A parcel of old iron 




15 


1 Walnut table 


1 


5 


8 Buck-skins 


4 


10 


16 pairs of shoes 


4 


8 


Iron spikes 


1 


10 


Part of a barrel of sugar 


1 


2 6 


20 lbs neat's leather 


1 


15 


21 cutting knives 


4 




Coal in the coal house 


4 


10 


Smith's tools, old iron, chains, &c. in the 






Smith's shop 


3 




New iron tools 


3 




Carpenter's tools 


1 


15 


Middlings in the chest 




15 


891 lbs of beef 5 d 


18 


11 3 


740 lbs of bacon 5 V4 


16 


19 2 


Salt shad &c 


7 




A parcel of empty hogsheads in cellar 


2 


10 


1 Windmill, 2 Cutting boxes 


4 




1 Gold watch & Seal 


40 




Negroes viz. 






Andrew — Arch — Guinea 


50 




Ceasar £20 Ishamel £70 Mulatto Peter £70 


160 




Cato £50 Cudgo £20 Black Peter £70 Adam £10 


150 




Flora a wench 


25 




In the mill 






13 172 bushels of wheat 6/ 


4 


1 


128 bushels of rye 4/6 


28 


16 


19 bushels buckwheat 2/ 


1 


18 


30 bushels of Indian Corn 3 3 


4 


17 6 


1 A list of bonds follows, not transcribed] 






Cash in the desk 527 3 6 






Received in Phil, for 






Thomas May's order on 






Wm. Pearson 50 


577 


3 6 


One boat 


20 




1550 Staves 


2 




12 Bags 


1 


10 


23 lb Linen yarn 


3 




9 pair Men's shoes 


2 


10 


lBull 


■A 


5 


1/2 a Seine 


5 




1/4 ditto at Bombay Hook 


2 


10 



GEORGE DOUGLASS 
THO'S HOCKLEY 
HENRY PAWLING 



40 



Valuation of Personal estate John 
Potts deed 1768 7586 14 4 

(7) 1785, April 25. Thomas Potts' Inventory, Register's office, Chester Coun- 
ty Courthouse, West Chester, Pennsylvania. 

Inventory of Thomas Potts of Coventry, Chester County, Pennsyl- 
vania also of Potts Grove, April 25, 1785 



looking Glass 


6/ -/ - 


Clock 


14/ -/ - 


6 hair Bottom Chairs 


11 10/ - 


Walnut Dining table 


1/ 5/ - 


China table 


1/ 10/ - 


Mahogany tea table 


2/ 5/ - 


Old Spy Glass 


1/2/6 


Small And Iron at 5/6 pictures at 15/- 


y -i - 


Bed, bedding and Bedsteads 


15/ -/ - 


Sopha 


8/ -/ - 


dressing table at 45/- looking Glass at 50/ 


4/ 15/ - 


case of drawes 


6/ -/ - 


Cupboard 


1/ 10/ - 


2 Chairs 


y 10/ - 


China and Queens Ware 


y 10/ - 


6 pictures 


15/ - 


6 silver Tables Spoons 


6/ -/ - 


6 ditto tea Spoons 


15/ - 


1 Silver Bowl 


11 10/ - 


1 ditto sugar Bowl 


4/ 10/ - 


1 ditto tea pot and Stand 


8/ 10/ - 


1 ditto Can 


11 -/ - 


1 Sugar tongs and Cream Can 


3/ 15/ - 


2 pepper Boxes and Strainer 


3/ 10/ - 


Sword and pistols 


2/ 10/ - 


desk and Bookcase 


4/ 10/ - 


looking Glass 


6/ -/ - 


dining table 


y 10/ - 


ditto Walnut 


y -i - 


5 Windsor Chairs 


15/ - 


Books 


3/ 12/ 6 


looking Glass 


2/ 5/ - 


Brass And Irons 


1/ 17/ 6 


Bed Bedding and Bedsteads 


8/ 10/ - 


looking Glass 


3/ -/ - 


Bureau table 


3/ 15/ - 


And Irons 


y 2/ 6 


Stand and 4 chairs 4 pictures 


4/2/6 


Easy Chair 


3/ -/ - 


dressing table 


17 15/ - 


Bed Bedding and Chairs 


9/ 10/ - 


2 demi Johns 


15/ - 


Bed Bedding and Curtains 


5/ 5/ - 


Old Desk and Chair 


1/ -/ - 


Bed Bedding and Bedsteads 


6/ 0/ 



41 



Case and Drawers 


3/ 10/ 


- 


looking Glass 


2/ 15/ 


- 


table and Chairs 


1/ 5/ 


- 


11 table Cloths 


8/ 5/ 


- 


14 napkins at 28/- 9 pillow Cases at 22/6 


2/ 10/ 


6 


Bed and Bedding 


4/ 10/ 


- 


2 Beds and 1 Blanket 


8/ -/ 


- 


2 Carpets 


1/ 2/ 


6 


fish kettle 


2/ 13/ 


- 


6 water plates and 2 dishes 


3/ -/ 


- 


15 plate and 4 dishes spoons and tea pot 


y 15/ 


- 


fish kettle 


14/ 


- 


tinware 


1/ 


T) 


tea kettle 




/5 


3 brass Candlesticks 


1/ 


6 


3 Iron candlesticks at 7/6 warming pan at 7/6 


15/ 


- 


5 pots and frying pan 


y 8/ 


- 


1 dutch Oven 


10/ 


- 


Copper kettle 


3/ -/ 


- 


Bake plate and Iron Shovels and tongs 


2/ 2/ 


6 



total estate 368/ 12/ - 

(8) 1803, June 29. Isaac Potts' Inventory, Register's Office, Montgomery 
County Courthouse. 

An Inventory of the Goods and Chatties rights & credits of Isaac 
Potts late of Cheltenham Town Ship in the County of Montgomery 
deceased taken an Apraised by us the under Named Subscribers 
this 29th day of the 6th Mo. 1803 



Cash in the House 
Bonds & Notes 

1st Room 



Eight day Clock 

Mahogany Side board 

d° Side Table 

D° Breakfast D° 

Large looking Glass 

6 Windsor chairs & 2 [?] 

[?! 

Brass And Irons Shovel & Tonges 

floor carpet 

2 Room 



Cherry Dining table 

D° [card?l D° 

D° Small I stand I 

Looking Glass 

Contents in the Closset Crockery &c 

3 large Waiters & Bread Basket 



Doll. 


a 


130 




670 




50 




25 




5 




5 




12 




[?] 




•1 




12 




6 




3 


50 


2 


50 


6 




2 




3 


50 



42 



3d Room 

Bed Bedstead & Contents thereon 20 

Looking Glass broken 2 

Desk & Book Case 12 

[page sub total J 

Pine Cubboard 

6 leather bottom chairs 

3 Qeens ware dishes 

a fowling Peice 

a lott of books 

4th Room 



Bed Bedstead and Pillows 
large looking Glass 
Cherry Card Table 
5 Stuff bottom Chairs 
Open Stove 
small Carpet 
Umbirella & Canes 
Contents in the Closset 
a Baromiter 
4 Windsor Chairs 

5th Room 



Bed bedstead and contents 

Dressing Table 

3 common walnut & one Arm Chair 

small open Stove 

brass top And Irons 

a Chest & Case with bottles 

a small box & Contents 

6th Room 



Lott of Old bed Cloths &c 



9th Room 



391 


8 


3 




4 




1 


25 


■1 




10 


75 


27 




6 




3 


50 


7 




3 




1 


25 


2 


15 


2 


50 


4 




2 




25 




3 




3 




3 




1 


50 


1 


50 


2 




12 




3 




4 





Case of drawrs 
Walnut Breakfast Table 
Brass And Irons 

[page subtotal] 139 75 

Open Stove 5 

7th Room 



Bed Bedstead & Contents 12 

Small pine Table 7 

2 pair And Irons 2 

8th Room 



2 Small Spinning Wheel & Reel 4 

Lot Old Chairs 1 

10th Room 



Dressing Table 2 

2 Bed Quilts & Coverlid 10 



43 



6 pair Blankets 

an Old floor Carpet 

one suit Worsted Curtains 

D° D° Callico D° 

one Counterpain 

a dressing Glass 

Bed & Bedstead 

4 Trunks &c 

Small Scales & Weights 



18 
1 
3 
5 

6 
2 



11th Room- 



Case of drawers 

Bed Bedstead & Contents 


4 
20 


Bedstead & Sacken 


2 


Looking Glass 2 leather chairs 


1 


Kitchen furniture 




a Ten plate Stove 


15 




128 


[?] 


1 


Warming & frying Panns &c 


2 50 


3 Chairs 


1 


Lott Tubs & buckets 




D° Iron Potts & racks 


4 


Tea Kettle & Bell Mettle D° 


2 50 


Large And Irons & Grid Iron 


3 


Lott of Tin Pewter & Earth ern Ware 


3 


Ladles Toster &c 


1 


a Box of Knives & forks 


1 50 


Dough Trough 


50 


Roasting Jack 


1 


large brass Kettle 


6 


lott Tubbs & Buckets 


4 50 


D° empty Bottles 


1 50 


D° d° casks 


7 


a coachee & harness 


[144?] 


a riding Chair & Do 


30 


a Sulke 


30 


pair old Wheels 


8 


Lott Tools 


2 50 


Old Cart 


5 


Wind Mill 


8 


New Cart 


24 


1 Horse 


) 30 


3 Cows 


) 40 


10 Sheep 


) 18 


In the tenants possession until the 4th of Nov. 




Rick damaged Hay 


8 


Cutting Box Shavings &c 


•1 


Dung & pitch forks &c 


1 


Spade & Shovels 


1 


2 Sorrell horses 


120 



44 



Washington Expense Accounts 



These meticulously kept accounts show a high expenditure during the war 
years on food and household items. During the Valley Forge encampment 
few household items (other than food) were purchased. The previous year 
many necessities such as tablewares, ceramics, and kitchenwares were 
purchased and presumably became part of the general's baggage. 

The Washington Papers, a microfilmed collection at the Library of 
Congress, contains pieces of a 1775 Cash Book, Gibbs' Account Book, and 
individual receipts. Rather than attempt to fit the pieces of the collection 
together, excerpts from the collection follow chronologically. Deborah 
Hewes' receipt for the use of her house and furnishings, all household 
items, and some food purchased from June 1775 to 1780 are included. 
Payments made to servants are also noted. The Gibbs Account Book 
purchases for the months of the Valley Forge encampment appear in 
Appendix VIII. 

(1) n.d., "By Ribbon to distinguish myself £3.4." A blue ribbon is seen in 
the Revolutionary War portraits of Washington. 

(2) 1775, June 22. Vouchers and Receipted Volumes. Series 5, Vol. 24 
(reel 116): "Phil. ... 3 pounds for a Russia leather travelling case" 
and on the same date "1 portmantle stuffed (?) /[&?] Long Straps 
18..0." 

(3) 1775, July 5. Ibid.: "9 yds. White Damask." 

(4) 1775, July 5. Individual receipt: 

His Excellency General Washington Bot of W. Pashanky 



4 doz. yell 


ow plates @ 6/8 


1 dish 6/8, 


1 D°6/ 






2 D° 10/8, 


2 D° 9/4, 


2 Do 8/ 


2 D° 6/8, 1 


D° 2/8, 


1 Do 


1/6 


1 Tea Pott 1/ 2 D° 


3/ 




1 Damask Table Cloth 




13 Loaves 


Sugar @ 36.. 


10 


12.. 14 






35..6.. 


12.. 12 






29.. 1.. 


12.. 8 






12.. 12.. 


12.. 1.. 






11.. 14.. 


12..42.. 






13..3 


13.. 






139.. 


13.. 1.. 






89 


89 






228..@l/5 



£ 1 





8 





V2 


8 


1 


8 






10 


10 





4 


00 


1 


10 


00 



.16..3.. 

£22 
Salem 5 July '75 

45 



(5) 1775, July 25. Bill to Giles Alexander Taylor for "mending a pair 
breeches for a servant." 

(6) 1775, August 8. Individual receipt: 

His excellency General Washington to Wm. Vans 

1775 July 7 

To sund sent Jack Dalend 58 10 8 

July 17 

To 12 spoons great & small [fetch?] by Mr. Ben 

Andrews 
Comm. on D° 

July 31 

1 cask Maderia wine sent by Negro [?] court in the 

cask 
10 doz. bottles & corks 
Carting 15/ 3 hampers 4/ 
[Commission] 



Received August 8 1775 Wm. Vans 
(7) 1775, August. 1775 Cash Book: 

Paid for 4 tin candlesticks 4 7 1/4 

1 tin dipper 

a dripping pan 

a pudding pan 
Paid for washing table linen, sheets 

& pillow cases 
Paid for 6 glass beakers 6 

Another entry in the 1775 Cash Book (presented separately in the Library 
of Congress collection): 



5 


19 


4 


6 


5 


4 


£13 


6 


8 


£ 1 


13 
19 

16 


4 


16 


15 


00 


81 


11 


00 



1775 






August 8 






Paid for a pepper box 


00 


00 4-3/4 


Paid for 4 tin candlesticks @4/ 3/ 


4 




1 tin dipper 


4 


7-1/4 


Paid for a dripping pan 3/4 & a pudding pan 


5 


1-1/2 


August 9 






Paid for 2 Cakes Crown Soap 


1 


6 



(8) 1775, September 20. 1775 Cash Book. 

3 chamber Potts & 1 Pitcher 2 2-3/4 



46 



(9) 1775, October. Individual receipt: 

His Excelly. Genl. Washington to Wm. Vans 1775 

October 11 

To 2 hampers Maderia wine sent by the desire of 
Col. Reed & Jack Dalend 

108 bottles @ 3/4 £18 
Hampers carting etc. 8 8 

October 2 

To 2 boxes and 1 basket Maderia wine sent by 
desire of Mr. Randolph by Benj. Shepherd 

109 bottles @ 3/6 19 1 6 
Boxes carting etc. 8 8 

37 18 10 

(10) 1775, October. 1775 Cash Book. "Paid for 1 doz Patty Pans. ..6. .8.."; 
"...Oct. 16 Paid for a blanket for the Gen'l"; "October 13 Paid for 2 
floor brushes 6/ mace, cloves, & nutmeg 5/10 00 11 10"; and "Oct. 24 
Paid for 2 Birch brooms for the stable." 

(11) 1775, November. 1775 Cash Book: "Nov. 1775 - Dec. 2 Paid for 
Scowring the Pewter & Scowring the House & Washing ..6.. 9 1/2." 

(12) 1775, December 7. Individual receipt: 

Philadelphia, December 6, 1775 

Col. Read 

Bot of John Dunlap 

2 Reams large Thin Post Paper @ 40/ 

1 Ditto D° D° cut for letters 

3 Ditto, best small Ditto Do @ 34/ 
3 Boxes Wafers @ 5/6 

2 lbs. super fine sealing wax @ 15/ 
box for the above 

Reed the above contents of Col. Read December 7, 1775 

(13) 1775, December. 1775 Cash Book: 

Dec. 19, 1775 Paid for 2 mugs & 1 pair salts 13 4 

Paid for 1 large dish 4 
Dec. 22 Paid Mr. Lucas for 1 doz. cups & saucers 

as pr acct 16 6 

Dec. 23 Paid for 6 brooms 4 9 

Dec. 28 Paid for 1 mug & six wine glasses 7 4 

(14) n.d. 1775 Cash Book (reel 117): "Mr. Austin's Actts being 
Vouchers for the money charged to him 1775-1776 July - Apr." 



47 



2 




2 


1 


5 


2 


16 


6 


1 


10 


1 


6 


11 


11 



00 6 
2 
2 
3 

3 


00 

4-3/4 
8 

2-172 


00 1 
3 


4 
6-172 


1 4 




1 

3 


6-3/4 


Series 
Linen.' 


5, V( 



(15) 1776, January. 1775 Cash Book: "Jan.ll 1776 Paid for 1 doz 
Knives & 1 doz. forks ..16 " 

(16) 1776, January. Gibbs' Account Book: 

January 1776 

Paid for 1 earthen platter 

Paid for 6 D° muggs 

Paid for a wash bason 

Paid for a sugar pot 

Paid the wash woman 
January 23 

Paid for 2 salts 

Paid for 2 glass tumblers 

Paid for 172 lb. tobbacco 
January 24 

Paid for 12 cups & 12 saucers 
January 26 

Paid for 2 brooms 

Paid for six chamber pots 

(17) 1776, January 25. Vouchers and Receipted Volumes. 
24 (reel 116):"... 19 1/2 yds. Furniture check, 38 yds. 

(18) 1776, February. Vouchers and Receipted Volumes. Series 5, Vol. 24 
(reel 116): 

Feb. 1776 To mending a Lanthorn for ye 

Table - 4 

To making a large Cake Pan 13 4 

To making 1 large coffee pot 6 6 

1 Large Saspan [saucepan] 2 6 
To 2 Candlesticks 1 Dipper 2 6 

(19) 1776, February. 1775 Cash Book: 

Feb. 8 1776 Paid for 2 cakes crown soap 
Feb. 12, 1776 Paid for Lady Washington's 

slippers & mending her shoes 
Feb. 14, 1776 Paid for 6 chamber pots - 5 - 

15 paid for 6 brooms — 6 

(20) 1776, March 19. Vouchers and Receipted Volumes. Series 5, Vol. 24 
(reel 116): 

March 19, 1776 to Wm Bartlet 

3 casks Porter 12 

To 4 Porter 3 

Soap & Sugar 3 4 

2 Cases of Claret 10 16 

32 of Spirits 9 12 



48 



(21) 1776, April. Individual receipt. 

April 1776 

Bot of Mrs. Moon 

1 large Damask tablecloth 

2 D° at £ 4 10 
2 D° at £ 4 

1 piece of Diaper for Napkins 

(22) 1776, April 4. Individual receipt: 

Boston, April 4, 1776 

His Excellency Gen.l Washington 

Bot of John Head 

1 Travelling Hair Trunk 

Rec'd the above of Maj. Fraser in full 



£ 5 
9 



2 16 
/s/John Head 



(23) 1776, April 14. Individual receipt: 

His Excellency General Washington Mrs. Vanhorn 1776 April 9 



To 25 bottles wine at 8/ 
12 D° D° 4/6 
Receved the contents 

Ann Van Home 

(24) 1776, April 14. Individual receipt: 

Mr. Smith bt of John Slidell 

April 14 1776 

Broom 

12 Dip Candles @10 

6 Moulds D° @11 

Received Contents [/s/lJohn Slidell 

(25) 1776, April 16. Individual receipt: 

New York 16 April 1776 

Mrs. Smith to Mrs. Harper D r for washing the 

Genl cloaths 
63 doz at 5/6 
To 4 Counterpins white 
To 1 D° callicoe 

To washing Mrs. Washington small cloaths 

New York 16 April 

Mrs. Smith Dr to Mrs. Hernekebocker for 
washing the Gen'l cloaths 55 doz 3/6 



10 

2 

12 



14 
14 



2 

10 
5 

17 



11 





6 


12 









2 





11 


14 


6 


1 


1 


1 



49 



9 








11 








6 


5 





3 








A 


8 








2 


6 


33 


15 


6 



To washing Mr. Lewis's cloaths 7 weeks 1 15 

19 15 7 

(26) 1776, April 23. Individual receipt: 

His Excellency General Washington April 13 1776 
Bot of John Clark 

2 sett [?] ivory handel Table knives 

and forks 
2 mahogany cases for D° 
2 sett Black handel Table knives & forks 

silver gilt[?] 
12 pair green [D?] forks [?] ivory handel 
2 Large Tea waiters 
1 small D° D° 



April 23 

Rec'd the Contents in full John Clark 

(27) 1776, April 23. Individual receipt: 

His Excellency General Washington Esq. 

Bt of John Slidell 

April 23 1776 
1 firken of Sope at 6- — 6 

20 Dip Candles at 10 16 -- 8 

1 2 8 

(28) 1776, April/May. An account of the furniture purchased in 1776. 
Series 5. 

1776 Bot for his Exc 1 Gen" Washington 
1776 
April 20 

X 1 carpet 36 yds square @/7 ft. 
X 1 D° 42 yds D° 
Not paid 

Bot of John Clarke 

X 2 Setts of Ivory handle knives 

& forks 
X 2 mahogany cases for D° 
X 2 Setts black handle Knives & forks 
X 1 Doz pr. of [Dessart?] knives & forks 
X 2 large tea waiters 
X 1 small d° 



Bot of James Deas 

X 1 Feather bed bolster & pillows 

X 1 Turene 

X 3 China Mugs 



50 



£13 


S 


3 


£14 


14 


— 


28 


2 


3 


£ 9 






£11 


-- 




6 


5 




3 


-- 


-- 


■1 


5 


-- 


4 


5 
■2 


-- 


£33 


15 


6 


£ 9 






2 


-- 


— 


1 


17 





6 broke X 2 dozen of plates 



2 2 



Bot of Dorothy Shewcroft 

X 1 pr of brass andirons shovel & tongs 
X 1 Scots carpet 



Bot of Wm Rhinelander 


May 1776 (cont.) 


broke X 


1 2 gall pitcher 


X 


2 oval Dishes 5/3 


X 


4 D° 3/9 


X 


4 D° 2/6 


missing X 


4 D° 1/6 


X 


2 [Paulf?] Dishes 2/ 


.0 missing & broke X 


25 pr D° of plates 7/6 


missing 


2 earthen dishes 


X 


2 sauce boats 


X 


1 mustard pott 


X 


1 D° 


X 


2 Large boats 


X 


1 Doz small plates 


X 


1 Bowl 


X 


2 Choc potts 2/6 


missing X 


3 bowls 


X 


2 China bowls 


X 


1 Doz of plates 


1 broken X 


2 large boats 


missing 


2 pudg Dishes 


X 


1 Doz of small plates 


2 broke or missing X 


3 wash basons 


X 


1 pitcher 4/6 1 D° 3/1 1 D° 2/ 


1 broke X 


2 half pt mugs 10 2 pdg Dishes 


broke & missing X 


2 washbasons 3/4 Brown mugs 2/ 


X 


2 Earthen Dishes 2/6 2 sett cups 




& saucers 


X 


2 [salt?] Dishes 


X 


2 oval Dishes 3/ 1 fruit Basket 5/6 


broke X 


1 China Bowl 


X 


2 Oval Dishes 2/6 1 pudg Dish 


X 


1 Doz of plates 5/6 1 doz small 


X 


chamb pott & soap Dish 


missing X 


3 fluted Bowls /9 2 wash basons 


broke 


1 milk jug 


X 


Bot of George Ball 


1 broke X 


2 china mugs 


X 


1 china teapot 


X 


1 stewpan 


X 


1 tea kettle 


X 


2 sauce pans 


X 


2 large pots 32/ 


X 


2 Setts large [burnt?! china 




cups & saucers 


broke X 


1 Quart burnt china bowl 


1 broke X 


2 China Mugs 3 wash basons 


X 


1 Sett large china 



5 


10 


~ 


3 


"~ 


"" 


£ -- 


4 




-- 


10 


6 


— 


15 


— 


— 


10 


-- 


-- 


6 


-- 


-- 


4 


-■ 


— 


1 


— 


-- 


1 


6 


— 


1 


6 


— 


1 


— 


— 


-- 


9 


— 


2 


— 


— 


5 


6 


— 


2 


— 


-- 


5 


-- 


— 


2 


— 


-- 


16 


-- 


— 


8 


-- 


-- 


2 


6 


-- 


3 


6 


-- 


5 


6 


— 


6 


— 


-- 


9 


6 


-- 


5 


10 


-- 


5 


-- 


7 


6 




-- 


3 


~ 


-- 


8 


6 


— 


5 


6 


-- 


7 


6 


-- 


11 


6 


~ 


6 


9 


-- 


6 


9 


— 


.- 


9 


£11 


11 


10 


£ -- 


6 




-- 


5 


-- 


-- 


12 


-- 


6 


8 


— 


— 


17 


6 


3 


4 


-- 


1" 


12 


-_ 


-- 


9 


— 


-- 


L5 


-- 


-- 


Hi 


— 



[?] 



51 



X 


2 Chamber pots 


- 


5 


6 


X 


2 water Guglets 


- 


16 


-- 


X 


2 pr Setts large China cups & saucers 


1 15 






X 


2 Quart Decanters 


- 


16 


- 


1 broke 


2 Wine & water glasses 


- 


16 


- 


broke X 


2 quart mugs 


- 


2 


8 




1 large pan 


- 


3 


- 


X 


26 Neet wine glasses 


1 


1-1 


— 


broke X 


3 Cups & saucers 


- 


8 


- 


1 broke 


2 pr pint tumblers 


— 


3 


— 


X 


4 pr cut salts 5/ 


1 


12 


-- 


X 


1 china tea pot 


— 


14 


-- 


X 


1 sugar dish & milk pot 


- 


3 


-- 


X 


1 Japan waiter 


~ 


4 


6 


X 


1 teapot 


- 


5 


- 


X 


1 Sugar Dish & milk pot 


- 


3 


- 


Missing 


1 china Bowl 


- 


9 


— 




6 pint Decanters 30-- 


— 


15 


-- 




1 large Bread Pot 


1 


12 


— 




1 large sauce pant 


~ 


12 


-- 




2 teapots/2 mugs 1 broke 


- 


7 


4 



162 13 9 



(29) 1776, May. Individual receipt: 

Mrs. Smith Dr to Wm.[?] Rhinlander April 16 1776 

To 2 China 2 qt bowls 
To 1 doz plates 



16 



To 1 pair sauce boats 


- 


2 


t ; . 


To 2 Pudg dishes 


-- 


3 


9 


To 1 Doz small Plates 


-- 


5 


6 


To 3 wash basins 


- 


6 


- 


April 25 








To 1 Pitcher w"cover 4/6 








1 D° 3/ 2 D° 2/ 


— 


9 


6 


To 2 half pt Muggs lOd 








2 pudd dishes 2/1 


-- 


5 


10 


To 2 wash basins 3/ 








1 brown Mugg 2/ 


— 


5 


-- 


To 2 Earthen dishes 2/6 








2 sets Cups & Saucers 5/ 


-- 


7 


6 


To 2 Oval Dishes 3/ sentl?] 6 


— 


3 


6 


April 29 








To 2 Oval Dishes 3/ 1 fruit Basket 5/6 


-. 


s 


6 


To 1 China Bowl 5/6 


-- 


5 


6 


May 4 








To 2 Oval Dishes 3/6 1 Pudg dish 2/6 


-- 


7 


6 


To 1 doz Plates 1/6 12 Do small 


-- 


11 


6 


To 2 Chamber. Potts 2/9 1 Sugr [soap?] dish 1/3 


-- 


6 


9 


To 3 plates & Bowls 9/ 2 wash basins 2/ 


-. 


6 


3 


To 1 Milk Jugg 


-- 


-- 


6 




5 


L9 


7 




5 


12 


3 




11 


11 


10 



52 



1 2 qt Pitcher -- 4 - 

2 Oval Dishes 5/3 -- 10 6 
4 D° 3/9 -- 15 -- 
4 D° 2/6 -- 10 -- 
4 D° 1/6 -- 6 -- 
2 Pudg dishes 2/ 4 -- 
2 5 1/2 doz [?] Plates 7/6 2 13 
2 Earthen Dishes --16 
2 Sause Boats - 2 

1 Must d Pott - 9 -- 

2 Sause boats 2 

1 doz. Cream Small Plates - 5 6 

1 bowl - 2 - 

2 Chamb. Potts 2/6 -- 5 - 

5 10 3 

3 bowls -- 2 - 

5 12 3 

(30) 1776, May. Gibbs' Account Book (reel 117): "His Exc. George 
Washington May 1776 / Bot Dorothy Shewcraft / 1 pr Andirons 5 10 
/ 1 scoch carpet 5--." 

(31) 1776, May 3. Vouchers and Receipted Volumes. Series 5, Vol. 24 
(reel 116): "To ? of Large Canteens Covered w/Leather Lined & Six 
half gallon Bottles 4..15..0, To a Large Kitchen & Six half gallon 
bottles 2..10..0." 

(32) 1776, May 5. Individual receipt: 

His Excellency General Washington Dr 
1776 March 11 
To George Ball 

2 China Mugs 
1 China Teapot 
1 Stewpan 

1 Tea Kett' 

2 Sauce Pans 
2 Large Potts 32/ 
2 Large [?] Pans 
2 Sett Large Burnt China Cupps & Sau 16/ 

1 Quart burnt China bowl 

2 China Mugs 3 Wash Basons 

1 Sett Large China 

2 Chamber Potts 
2 Water Guglets 

2 Sets Large China Cupps & Saucers 16/ 
2 Quart Decanters 
2 Wine & Water Cups 

2 Quart Mugs 
1 Sauce pan 
26 Neat Wine Glasses 16/ 

3 Cupps & Saucers 

53 



00 





00 


00 


5 


00 


00 


12 


00 


1 


8 


00 


00 


7 


6 


3 


4 


00 


2 


4 


00 


1 





00 





9 


00 


00 


15 


00 


00 


16 


00 


00 


5 


6 


00 


16 


00 


1 


15 


00 


00 


16 


00 


00 


8 


00 


00 


2 


1 


00 


3 


oo 


1 


14 


1 


00 


1 


00 



00 


3 


00 


1 


12 


00 


00 


14 


00 


00 


13 


00 


00 


4 


00 


00 


5 


00 


00 


3 


00 


00 


9 


00 


00 


15 


00 


1 


12 


00 


00 


12 


00 


00 


6 


4 


00 


1 


00 


26 


10 


2 



2 


7 




15 


2 


16 


4 


19 



2 Half pint Tumblers 

4 pair Cutt Salts 

1 China Tea pot 

1 Sugar Dish milch pott 

1 Japan Waiter 

1 Tea pott 

1 Sugar Dish & Milk pot 

1 China Bowl 

6 Pint Decanters 

1 Large Oval Pot 30/ 

1 Large Sauce pan 

2 Tea potts 
2 Mugs 



May 5, 1776 reed, the sum of Mrs. Smith over contents in full. 

[s] George Ball 

(33) 1776, May 11. Individual receipt: 

Mr. Joseph Reed 
Philadelphia April 18, 1776 
To Benj." Harbeson 
To 1 Nest of Camp Kettles 
3 Large Tin Canisters 

1 Doz. Oval Tin Dishes 

2 Doz. & 9 Tin Plates @ 36/ 

May 3 

1 Doz. D° 1 16 

7 tin Canisters 18 

13 11 6 
For General Washington 

Received May 11, 1776 By the Hands of [And W. Hodges, Junr.?] the Above 
Contents 

I si Benj. Harbeson 

(34) 1776, May 11. Individual receipt: 

Joseph Reed, Esq. 
To William Hollinshead 
For General Washington 
March 25 1776 

oz.dwt. 
To 2 Cases Knives & forks @5.5 

1 Doz. Camp Cups wt. 11 18 
1/2 Doz. Coffee Cups 11 16 

2 Half pint Camp Cups 7 11 ..12 

Reed May 11 1776 By the Hands of And. w Hodges Junr. the above contents 

I si Wm. Hollinshead 



54 



£10 


10 




11 


7 


1 


9 


16 


2 


5 


8 


2 


37 


1 


5 



(35) 1776, May 11. Individual receipt: 



Col. Joseph Read 

For His Excellency Genl Washington 

To Plunket Fleesen 

Philad., May 4, 1776 

To making a large Dining Marque 

with doubee-front 
Making an other large Marque with a Cham|b]er 

Tent of Ticken Arch'd 
To 52 yds. Red Stripe 7/8 [flanders?] 

ticken @ 6/ 
Making a large Baggage tent 

11 Doz. Girth 4/ 

21 yds. Canvas for Skirting etc. @ 3/ 
21 Gross large hooks & eyes 15/ 

12 yds. guard lace 

3 Sett tent poles jointed & painted 

ironwork etc. 40/ 
10 turn to be painted 1/ 
25 lbs. best hard Cord 2/ 
12 Doz. Tent pins 1/6 
5 doz. tuners 2/ 
200 buttons 4 Malletts 
Making 2 [?] straps buckels straps etc. 
To 18 walnut camp Stools, Moreen, brass nails, 

girth, tacks, & bottoming @ 15/ 
3 walnut camp tables @ 20/ 
3 packing Cases iron clamps 10/ 



00 00 



10 



15 


12 


10 


1 


10 


00 


2 


4 


00 


3 


3 


00 


1 


17 


6 





6 


00 


6 






1 






2 


10 




18 






10 






12 






1 






13 


10 




3 






1 


10 




64 2 


6 





Reed May 11, 1776 by the Hands of And. Hodge Jun. the above contents 
from General Washington 

Plunket Fleeson 

(36) 1776, May 13. Individual receipt: 

His Excelly. Genl. Washington March 28, 1776 
Bot of Joseph Stansbury 

At his Store of China, Glass, & Earthenwares Opposite Christ's 
Church in Second Street, Philadelphia Where Merchants, Country 
Shopkeepers and others may be supplied on the Shortest Notice 
and at the Lowest Prices 



2 Cut Vinegar Cruits 
4 heavy Salt Cellars 



00 10 00 
6 

16 



Reed 13th May 1776 the above in full by the hands of W. Andrew Hodge 

/s/ Jos. Stansbury 



55 



(37) 1776, May 13. Gibbs' Account Book (reel 117): "G. Washington 1 
Chest [brotj 7/9 / Do 15 to Do Kettels fraight 2/2 / Mr. Reed to 1 
Long Box 5/2." 

(38) 1776, May 16. Vouchers and Receipted Volumes. Series 5, Vol. 24 
(reel 116): "N.Y. to John Brown To making a set Bed Curtains 
1..5..0. To altering the Tester 0..3..6." 

(39) 1776, May 30. Individual receipt: 



May 30, 1776 

Rec'd of Mrs. Manny Smith the above in full £25 Elizabeth Moore 

Bot at Sundry place 

1 hair broom 

1 brush 

1 Japan bread basket 

1 mahogany waiter 

Carting the furniture 

1 tin Dredging box and grater 

1 mahogany Tray 

1 Cullander 

Carting the furniture 

1 pot for Butter 

2 matts 
2 pails 

2 hearth brushes 
1 rubbing brush 

1 pair of Candlesticks 

2 pair D° 

2 markett Baskett 
2 ladels 

2 pails 

1 fender for the fire 

1 teakettle (top broken) 

1 Dripping pan 
6 earthen Pots (broke and missing) 

2 wash hand basins 
2 tubs 

2 pair brass Candlesticks at 10/6 
Making a key for the lock 
1 Japan sugar canister 
1 canister D° for Tea 

3 fruit Baskets at 5/6 

4 plates for the Baskets D° 
1 pr of snuffers 



£ -- 


3 


-- 


— 


3 


— 


— 


16 


— 


— 


3 


— 


— 


8 


00 


— 


4 


-- 


~ 


16 


— 


— 


2 


6 


~ 


4 


6 


— 


4 


— 


— 


9 


— 


— 


12 


— 


~ 


6 


— 


-- 


2 


6 


1 


4 


— 


-- 


16 


— 


— 


3 


6 


— 


2 


.- 


16 


17 


— 


— 


12 


— 


-- 


16 


— 


-- 


16 


— 


-- 


s 


-- 





12 


6 


-- 


1<I 


-- 


1 


1 


— 


-- 


6 


6 


6 


-- 




-- 


4 


6 


-- 


16 


6 


-- 


4 


-- 


-- 


6 - 





15 17 



56 



(40) 1776, June. Individual receipt: 

General Washington to John Martin June 4, 1776 

Making a boock case buttons & thread --2 6 

3/4 yds. green baize @ 7/ [?] - 3 7-1/2 

Received the Above in full 00 8 1-1/2 

/s/ John Martin 

(41) 1776, June 11. Individual receipt: 

General Washington 
Philad.a 11th June 1776 
Bought of John Sparhawk 

Topography of North American & 
West Indies £14 10 - 



Received contents in full 



/s/John Sparhawk 



(42) 1776, July 9. Gibbs' Account Book (reel 117): "New York July 9, 
1776 This day Mrs. Thompson came to Keep house for his Excellency 
General Washington." 

(43) 1776, September 20. Receipts 1776-1777: "5 Plain Shirts / 5 
stocks / 1 pair stockings / 1 silk Handkerchief." 

(44) [1776?] September, October, and November. Gibbs' Account Book 
(reel 117): 



Sept. 27 


Cash paid for a tumbler 


-- 


2 


Oct. 12 


1 quart decanter 


— 


6 


Oct. 7 


to cash gave Mrs. Thompson for 








servant girl dismissed Negro Hanah, 


-- 


5 


Oct. 13 


cash paid servant 


2 







Jenny 


- 


16 




Negro Isaac servant 


■1 





Oct. 29 


To common coarse Mugs, Bowls etc. 








for kitchen 


— 


10 


Nov. 20 


Cash paid servant Witt 






Nov. 26 


Jack 3 dollars 







(45) 1776, October 25. Vouchers and Receipted Volumes. Series 5, Vol. 
24 (reel 116): "To Plunket Fleeson To a Matrass Cont. wool & Hair 
4..6.0." 

(46) 1776, November. Vouchers and Receipted Volumes. Series 5, Vol. 24 
(reel 116): "Nov. 20 1776-Servant Witt/ Nov. 26 [Servant] Jack." 



57 



(47) 1776, November 6. 1775 Cash Book (reel 117): "Nov. 1776 6 paid 
Mich Applebee for 1 pr slippers for the Genl." 

(48) 1776, July-December. 



1776 July 15 








Cash paid to Negro Hannah 


00 


16 


00 


July 25 








Cash paid Tailor Jack 


10 


16 


00 


Cash paid Negro Hannah 


3 


4 




August 14 








To Cash paid Servant Lydia, Molatto 


1 


12 




September 3 








To Cash paid Negro Isaac 


2 






September 13 








To Cash paid Servant Jenny 


1 


4 




October 7 








To Cash paid Servant Girl Dismissed 








by Mrs. Thompson 


5 






October 15 








To Cash paid Negro Hannah 


2 






To Cash paid Servant Jenny 


10 






October 16 








To Cash paid Negro Isaac Servant 


4 


00 


00 


November 19 








To Cash paid Isaac 


3 


12 




To Cash paid Servant Jack $3.00 


1 


4 




November 21 








To Cash paid Isaac, Servant $3.00 


1 


4 




To Cash paid Servant Isaac $3.00 


1 


2 


6 


December 6 








To Cash paid Servant Jenny $3.00 


1 


2 


6 


December 29 








To Cash paid Jack when at Mr. Barclay's 


15 







(49) 1777, January 22. Warrant Book (reel 116). Warrants granted and 
to whom: "To Caleb Gibbs for expenses General's family £2000." 

(50) 1777, February. Gibbs' Account Book: "Feb. 1777 Cash paid for a 
case of surveying instruments.... for the General at Mr. Dyson's 
1..17..6." 

(51) 1777, March 7. Vouchers and Receipted Volumes (reel 116), series 5, 
vol. 24: "March 7, 1777 To Cash paid Mr. Ogden for sundries bought 
in the house." 

(52) 1777, April 1. Gibbs' Account Book: "Rec'ts 1776-1777 / Capt. 
Lewis to Jane Wistmore / 1777 April 1 To 1 Hyson's Tea 60/ 
£3..0..0." 



58 



(53) 1777, April 20. Vouchers and Receipted Volumes (reel 116), series 5, 
vol. 24: "April 20, 1777 paid Jenny for / 13 July 1776 -23 April 1777 
/ John Whitehead April 7 1776 to April 23 1777." 

(54) 1777, [April?]. Gibbs' Account Book: "John Galloway / His Excell 
Gen. Washington / making a coat / linings pockets / Buckram & 
stays / collar lining / 2 waistcoats & 2 pair breeches / facing pockets 
& stays / silk thread / bottons for waistcoat & breeches." 

(55) 1777, May 7. Vouchers and Receipted Volumes (reel 116), series 5, 
vol. 24: "May 7, 1777 Cash paid Mr. McGuire to bear his expense to 
headquarters as steward." 

(56) 1777, May 8. Gibbs' Account Book: 

Phil. May 8, 1777 Carpenter Wharton 

In a cask loaf sugar 1/2 bushel almonds 

2 casks white biscuit 9 quarts shell barks 

In 2 boxes 20 lbs. green tea 2 bottles lime juice 

12 lbs. pepper 18 Gammons 

24 bottles mustard £178.. 15.. 7 1/2 
3 bottles sup fine(?) 

(57) 1777, May 10. Gibbs' Account Book, Daily Expenses 1777: "Phil. / 
May 10, 1777 Sam Purviance & Sons / 1 Pipe Madeira Wine 150 / 
Case & Casing ditto 1..12.6 / 151..12..6." 

(58) 1777, May 24. Vouchers and Receipted Volumes (reel 116), series 5, 
vol. 24: "May 24 1777 Cash paid Mr. Ogden Servant for conductg 
Gen'l to the meadows." 

(59) 1777, June 3. Gibbs' Account Book, Daily Expenses 1777: "June 3, 
1777 / Paying Isaac the Cook 47 pounds / 18 shillings wages / 6 
pounds per month." 

(60) 1777, June 3. Vouchers and Receipted Volumes (reel 116), series 5, 
vol. 24: "Isaac the Cook £47 6£ per month." 

(61) 1777, August and September. Gibbs' Account Book: 

Aug. 6, 1777 To mending the telescope 1 17 -- 

Aug. 7, 1777 To a Copper Tea Kettle 4 2 6 
1 doz. China cups & saucers £ 4 10 

1 chamber pot 12/6 

Aug. 17, 1777 1 basket 5/ 

Sept. 2, 1777 3 baking dishes & 

3 pudding pans -- 7/6 



59 



Sept. 5, 1777 1 large candlestick 10/ 

2 small candlesticks 15/ 
2 spoons 2/6 

(62) 1777, September 27. Gibbs' Account Book, Daily Expenses 1777: 
"Sept. 27, 1777 8 clasps for General's trunk ...8..." 

(63) 1777, [September ?]. Gibbs' Account Book, Daily Expenses 1777: 
"Rec'ts / Rec'ts from Jas Deas / a feather bed, bolster & pillows £9--/ 
to ? a 2 Dozen of plates 2.. ..2 / To 3 China Muggs 1..17..." 

(64) 1777, October. Vouchers and Receipted Volumes (reel 116), series 5, 
vol. 24: "Oct. 10 Cash paid Servant Isaac 2 2 6/ [October] 13 [Cash 
paid Servant Isaac] 45 / Cash McGuire paid for hay & oats for / his 
horse 7 6." 

(65) 1777. Cash paid to servants belong to Gen.ll Washington's Family: 



January 7 








To Cash paid Servant Jenny $8.00 


3 


00 


00 


To Cash paid [?] Servant Jack 






s 


February 17 








To Cash paid Servant Jenny $18.00 


3 


00 


00 


To Cash paid Negro Hanna $4 


1 


10 




April 20 








To Cash paid Servant Jenny $[?] 




6[?] 


To Cash Mrs. Thompson paid Isaac 


$16.( 




April 23 








To Cash paid Mr. Thompson for his services 








as per bill 


30 


10 




To Cash paid Servant Jane for balance of acct. 


10 






To Cash paid Tailor Jack on balance for wages 


17 


•2 


6 


May 4 








To Cash paid to Mr. McGuire to carry him to 








and from Phil. 








June 3 








To Servant Isaac & Hannah paying up to this 








day paid 








To Captain Johnson only back bill and 








receipts 


53 


00 


00 


June 8 








To Cash paid Servant John as hostler 








for 2 months 


2 






July 28 








To Cash paid Frank the hostler 


1 


2 


6 


Cash paid Servant Isaac $15.00 


5 


12 


6 


August 8 








To Cash paid Frank the Genii hostler 


•1 


10 




To Cash paid Frank D° 


7 


00 


6 


September 28 








Cash paid Servant Isaac 




15 




October 2 








To Cash paid Servant Isaac 


7 


00 


6 



60 



(66) 1777. Cash paid to Servants Belonging to Gen. Washington's Family: 
"1777 servant Jenny / servant Jack / negro Hannah / Isaac / Mr. 
Thompson for his services / servant Jane / Tailor Jack [?J / servant 
John as hostler / Frank the hostler." 

(67) 1778, February 14. Vouchers and Receipted Volumes, series 5, vol. 
24 (reel 116): 

Feb. 14 1778 

Cash paid Frank the hostler on balance 3 17 6 

$30 11 5 

servant Isaac the cook $20 7 10 

(68) 1778, February 27. Vouchers and Receipted Volumes, series 5, vol. 
24 (reel 116): "Feb. 27 Cash paid McGuire for a pair gloves for 
the Gen.ll ..15.." 

(69) 1778, March 6. Vouchers and Receipted Volumes, series 5, vol. 24 
(reel 116): "March 6 McGuire settlement on his wages as steward." 

(70) 1778, March 6. Gibbs' Account Book, Daily Expenses 1777: "to his 
Excellency the commander in chief 62 pounds 16 shillings & 5 pence 
/ 6 March, 1778." 

(71) 1778, March 6. Vouchers and Receipted Volumes. Series 5, Vol. 24 
(reel 116): "Patrick Maguire paid 6 March 1778 / Margaret Thomas 
for washing Oct. 20-1776 to Feb. 20, 1778." 

(72) 1778, March 23. Warrant Book (reel 116). Warrants granted and to 
whom: "March 23, 1778 To John Potts for vegetable money in back 
rations due him and eight others as bargemen for his Excellency for 
[100 days?] to the 30th Dec. 76 50 52/96" 

(73) 1778, [March ?]. Gibbs' Account Book, Daily Expenses 1777: 
"Patrick Maguire paid as steward." 

(74) 1778, [March ?]. Gibbs' Account Book, Daily Expenses 1777: "rec't 
from Margaret Thomas for washing done for his Excellency Gen. 
Washington Oct. 20, 1776 to Feb. 20, 1778 including servants 28 
pounds 17 shillings & 6 pence." 

(75) 1778, April 5. Vouchers and Receipted Volumes, series 5, vol. 24 
(reel 116): "April 5 Cash paid Margaret Thomas for Washing from 
20th Octob 76 to 20th Feb. 78 inclusively 28 17 6." 

(76) 1778, April 10. Warrant Book (reel 116). Warrants granted and to 
whom: "April 10, 1778 To Caleb Gibbs for use of his Excelly 1000 
pounds." 

61 



£53 


11 




43 








10 


6 




10 


6 




3 


18 


121 


1 





(77) 1778, January- April. Miscellaneous notes (reel 117): "rock fish, 3 
brooms--Jan. 26"; "Feb. 7 broom for the stable"; "Feb. 12 Frank the 
Hostler / Cash paid Isaac the Cook"; "22 Cash given Col. Biddle's 
servant for bringing tea"; "Feb. 27 gloves for the Gen'l"; "March 6 
Cash paid Patrick McGuire for his wages as Steward to the General"; 
"March 15 1 basket"; "March 27 oysters"; "April 18, 1778 2 large tea 
pots"; "April 18 1 bottle snuff." 

(78) 1778, June 5. Individual receipt: 

His Excellency General Washington 

Cap't Jn Barry 

Bot at Sale at Middletown 

To 6 loafs of Sugar lbs. 42 @ 25/6 per lb. 
To 4 Canisters of Hyson Tea @ £10/15 
To 1 Doz. White Kidd Gloves @ /18 
To 12 lbs. best hair powder @ /18 per lb. 
To 6 yds. best silk ribbon /13 

Headquarters June 5, 1778 Rendered the Above Acct. in Full 

/s/ John Barry 

Deduct £10.. 6 for Kidd Glove @ £3.. 18 for 

Ribbon /remains £106.17 
Eql to $356.00. 

(79) 1778, June 18. Gibbs' Account Book: "Daily Expenses Brought 
Forward 1778.... To cash paid Mrs. Hewes for the use of her house & 
furniture at V. Forge as per bill 100. .0--." 

(80) 1778, June 18. Individual receipt: "Received of Captain Gibbs One 
hundred pounds Pennsylvania Currency being in full of all demands 
a[gainsjt his Excellency Genl. Washington for the Use of the House, 
Furniture &c. [signedj Deborah Hewes." 

(81) 1778, January-June. Warrant Book (reel 116). Warrants granted 
and to whom: "January 29, 1778 To Capt. Gibbs Hd Ex 2000 / April 
10 Ditto Ditto 1000 / June 16 To Maj Gibbs Hd Ex 2000." 

(82) 1778, January-June. Gibbs' Account Book: 

Hdqtrs Valley Forge 

Jan. 29, 1778 for use of his family 2000 dollars 

April 10, 1778 1000 dollars 

May 7, 1778 2000 dollars 

June 16, 1778 2000 dollars 

Maj. Gibbs rec'd of Paymaster General 

62 



(83) 1778, September 25. Individual receipt: "Fredericksburg September 
25, 1778 / There received from George Washington 25 Guineas to be 
Delivered to His Seat / James Dalton." 

(84) c.1778. Individual receipt: 

A List of Work Done of Articles 
To 1 pair of Breeches 
To 1 pair Westcoat 

To Lining 1 Coat and Making 4 pare of Drawers 
[Coat?] & Trimmings 

(85) 1780, June 25. Individual receipt: 

Philadelphia 25 June 1780 

Col. Clement Biddle 

Bot of Richard Humphreys 

2 doz. table spoons wt.49 oz. 6 dwt 
Half a Doz. Large Camp Cups 29 oz. 
2 Small D° D° 2 6 
Engraving as per bill 

By 19 oz of Old Silver 8/6 per ounce 
Ballance Due 
In Specie 

For Painted Tin Cups @ $30.00 in 120 
Continental Notes 

(86) 1780, June 25. R.H. Harrison, Secretary's Warrant Book: "Phil. 
June 25, 1780 / 2 doz. Table Spoons 34..3..9 / Half a doz. large camp 
cups 22.. 1.... / 2 small do..do.. 2.. 16.. / Engraving / By 19 oz old silver 
8..1..6 / 53..10..0." 

(87) 1781, August 21. Vouchers and Receipted Volumes, Series 5, Vol. 24 
(reel 116): "Eliz. Thompson paid Aug. 21, 1781." 

(88) 1781, August 28. (reel 117): Receipt from Elizabeth Thompson for 
25 guineas "what is due to me from the Public for my Services 
whilst in the Family of the Genl." 



£34 


3 


9 


22 


1 





2 


10 


9 


2 


16 




62 


11 


6 


s 


1 


6 


53 


10 


00 



63 



Eighteenth Century References to Life and Furnishings at Valley Forge 

Sparse contemporary accounts of Valley Forge relate to life at headquarters. 
These accounts show, however, that headquarters was crowded, noisy, and 
busy. Three of the accounts provide information about room usage at head- 
quarters: a log cabin addition was used for dining, General Lee stayed in a 
small guest room beyond Mrs. Washington's sitting room, and some female 
guests were entertained on the second floor in Mrs. Washington's chamber. 

Two of Washington's letters refer either to headquarters in general or specific 
objects at headquarters. Several excerpts from the Valley Forge Orderly 
Book of General Weedon are included for their references to furnishings and 
General Washington's attitude toward appearance and recreational activities. 

(1) 1777, November 29, headquarters. John Laurens to his father. The 
Army Correspondence of Colonel John Laurens in the Years 1777-1778 
(New York: The Bradford Club, 1867). "This will merely serve as a cover 
to a newspaper, part of which I copied in my last. It goes by a man who 
is to set off immediately for York as I am informed by Col. Tilghman. I 
am exceedingly obliged to you for the gloves.... Upon looking into your 
letter again I see that I am indebted to a lady for the gloves; you will 
oblige me by saying something handsome for me." 

(2) 1777, December 15, headquarters, "at the Gulf." John Laurens to his 
father. Army Correspondence. "Berry received a hunting shirt and a 
check shirt. If there be any difficulty in getting him winter clothes I 
believe he can do without." 

(3) 1778, January 3, headquarters. John Laurens to his father. Army 
Correspondence. "I have been obliged to do it in a hurry, and in a small, 
noisy, crowded room. I have succeeded so far with secrecy, and dare not 
venture upon a more decent copy. I hope, therefore, that you will excuse 
my letter, and accept it in its present dress." 

(4) 1778, January 11, Valley Forge. George Washington to Capt. George 
Lewis. John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Writings of George Washington 
(Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1933), 10:290. 

Dear George: I am sorry to find by your Letter to Mr. Harrison that 
you still continue indisposed. If the state of your health requires 
leave of absence, I shall not object to your visiting your friends in 
Virginia to recover it. You will take this in your way as I shall want 
to see you before you go. 

I wish you to have every part, and parcel of my Baggage removed from 
New Town to this place. I do not know in whose care, and possession 
it is; but am satisfied I ought to have a good deal there, among other 
things a Bed; end Irons, Plates, Dishes, and Kitchen Utensils, how- 

64 



ever, be it what it will let the whole come, pay, or bring an Acct. of 
the expenses attending the Storage &c; and hire or impress proper 
waggons for bringing these things. I am, etc. 

(5) 1778, January 28, headquarters. John Laurens to his father. Army 
Correspondence. "I am called upon to attend the general to his first 
official interview with the congressional committee...." 

(6) 1778, February 1, Valley Forge. George Washington to John Parke 
Custis. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Writings of George Washington, 10:413. 
"Your mamma is not yet arrived, but if she left Mount Vernon on the 
twenty sixth ultimo, as intended, may, I think be expected every hour. 
Meade set off yesterday (as soon as I got notice of her intention) to meet 
her. We are in a dreary kind of place, and uncomfortably provided; for 
other matters I shall refer you to the bearer, Colonel Fitzgerald, who can 
give you the occurrences of the camp, &c, better than can be related in 
a letter. My best wishes attend Nelly and the little ones, and with sincere 
regard I am &c." 

(7) 1778, February 2. Tench Tilghman, ALS, to Robert Morris. Valley Forge 
National Historical Park Archives. "I cannot promise myself the pleasure 
of accepting your kind invitation to spend a few days at Manheim. Winter 
Quarters is to us, what a stoppage of Navigation used to be to you. rather 
an increase of Business in the way of Paper, Pens and Ink...." 

(8) 1778, February 9, headquarters. John Laurens to his father. Army 
Correspondence. 

I have to thank you, my dear father, for two shirts, and a piece of 
scarlet cloth. I wrote to James for some hair powder and pomatum, 
but received only the latter with a comb. As I am upon the subject of 
dress, it will not be premature to inform you, that if you should 
command me to remain in my present station, blue and buff cloth, 
lining, twist, yellow flat double gilt buttons sufficient to make me a 
uniform suit, will be wanted; besides, corded dimity for waistcoats 
and breeches against the opening of the campaign; and I must beg 
the favour of you to write to some friend in South Carolina, to procure 
me these articles. A pair of gold epaulettes and a saddle cloth may 
be added, if not too expensive. If you should give me leave to execute 
my black project, my uniform will be a white field (faced with red), a 
color which is easiest kept clean, and will form a good contrast with 
the complexion of the soldier. 

[Note: Laurens' proposed black regiment was never raised. 1 



65 



(9) 1778, February 15, headquarters. John Laurens to his father. Army 
Correspondence. 

I am to thank you for your kind letter of the 6th inst., and the two 
camp shirts which accompanied it.... 

The scarlet cloth, four camp shirts (in all), a roll of pomatum, a hair 
comb, two shirts for Berry, and a hunting shirt, have been received 
at different times, and I am exceedingly obliged to you for them. In 
future I will be more careful to thank you for such articles immedi- 
ately after the receipt of them. 

(10) 1778, February 18. Valley Forge Orderly Book of General George Weedon 
of the Continental Army under Command ofGenl George Washington, in 
the Campaign of 1777-8 (New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 
MDCCCCII), pp. 236-7. 

The Commander in Chief approves the sentence is concern 'd he 
cannot Reinstate Lt. Rust in Compliance of the recommendation of 
the Court founded upon his former good Character as an Officer his 
Behaviour in the several instances alledged to be so flagrant and 
scandalous that the General thinks his Continuance in the Service 
would be disagreeable to it — And as one part of his Charge against 
him was gaming, that alone would exclude him from all Indulgence — 
the Vice is so pernicious a nature that it never will escape the severest 
punishments with his approbation.... 

(11) 1778, February 24, John Laurens to ?, Head Quarters. Army Correspon- 
dence. "I have but one pair of breeches that are wearable. If James can 
possibly procure me some white cloth to reinforce me in this article, it 
will be of great service to me." 

(12) 1778, March 7. Martha Washington to Mercy Warren. Warren- Adams 
Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, Mass., copy in Valley 
Forge National Historical Park files. 

The General is in camped in what is called the great valley on the 
Banks of the Schuykill officers and men are chiefly in Hutts, which 
they say is tolerably comfortable; the army are as healthy as can well 
be expected in general — the Generals appartment is very small he 
has had a log cabben built to dine in which has made our quarters 
much more tolerable than they were at first. 

It would give me pleasure to deliver your compliments to Mrs Gates, 
but she lives at so great a distance from me that I have not seen her 
since we parted at newport, two years afore; the General joins me in 
offering our respectfull compliments to Genl Warren and yourself. 



66 






(13) 1778, March 9, headquarters. John Laurens to his father. Army Cor- 
respondence. 

I have received your three letters, one of the 1st inst., and two of the 
3d, with the very seasonable supply of buff cloth, which, that I may 
not disgrace the relation in which I stand to the president of Congress, 
and the Commander in chief of the armies of the United States, by 
an unworthy appearance, shall be immediately converted to proper 
use. My obligation is the greater, as my want was more pressing, 
and I entreat your acceptance of due thanks. The necessity of the 
case can only plead my excuse for intruding such minutious objects 
on a mind filled with the interests of a great empire.... 

Mrs. Washington has received the miniature, and wishes to know 
whether Major Rogers is still at York. The defects of this portrait I 
think are, that the visage is too long, and old age is too strongly 
marked in it. He is not altogether mistaken, with respect to the 
languor of the general's eye; for altho' his countenance when affected 
either by joy or anger, is full of expression, yet when the muscles are 
in a state of repose, his eye certainly wants animation. My proficiency 
in this kind of drawing never went beyond sketching a profile. I never 
attempted to paint a miniature likeness of a full face. There is a 
miniature painter in camp who has made two or three successful 
attempts to produce the general's likeness.... 

If among the books Duplessis has given you, there is one entitled La 
Tactique de Ghibert, I am very anxious to read it. 

Likewise the work of Mesnil Durand. 

(14) 1778, March 22, headquarters. John Laurens to his father. Army Cor- 
respondence. "Du Plessis told me that he had commissioned a Mr. De la 
Balme to put some books into your hands for me." 

( 15) 1778, March 27. Valley Forge Orderly Book of General George Weedon of 
the Continental Army under Command ofGenl George Washington, in the 
Campaign of 1777-8, pp. 236-7. 

The Numerous inconveniences of a large train of Baggage, must be 
apparent to every officer of the least consideration. An Army by 
means of it is render'd unwieldy, and Incapable of acting with that 
ease and celerity, which are essential — either to its own security and 
Defence, or to vigour, and enterprize in its offensive opperations. The 
Solicitude, which those who have a large quantity at Stake, will feel 
for its safety, even in the most critical circumstances, is sometimes 
attended with very alarming consequences, and Individuals, fre- 
quently, and unavoidably, sustain no Inconsiderable losses from the 
Imprudence of encumbering themselves with Superfluous bag- 
gage. ...The Publick is burthen'd with a fruitless expense, in an addi- 
tional number of Horses, and Waggons; and the strength of the army 
is deminish'd by the extraordinary Number of Guards requir'd for 
their protection. These disadvantages, and many more, that will 
suggest themselves on reflection.... Notwithstanding the pains taken 



67 



to remedy them, have been heretofore, severely felt by this Army. 
Many instances, will be recollected in the course of the last Campaign; 
and among others, the great loss, which attended sending the Super- 
fluous baggage, during the most active part of it, to a distance from 
the Army. The Commander in Chief, hopes these considerations will 
influence officers in the ensueing Campaign, to provide themselves 
with those necessaries only, which cannot be dispens'd with, and with 
the means of carrying them, in the most easy and convenient manner; 
In order to which, He strongly recommends the disuse of Chests, & 
Boxes, and that Portmanteau's & Valeesces, made of Duck be sub- 
stituted in stead of them. This will be more requisite, as its in 
Contemplation, to employ as few Waggons as possible, and to make 
use of Pack Horses, as far as may be practicable. It is expected the 
General & Field Officers, will set the Example, and see, that it is 
strictly follow'd by all those under their respective Commands. 

(16) 1778, April 1. Valley Forge Orderly Book of General George Weedon of 
the Continental Army under Command ofGenl George Washington, in the 
Campaign of 1777-8, pp. 236-7. 

Some Brigades were late in sending their men on to the grand Parade 
this morning.... The General is willing to attribute this to the dif- 
ference in watches; and to the end, that greater punctuality may be 
observed in future with respect to time. ..the Adjutant General is to 
regulate his watch by the Clock at Head Quarters — The Brigade 
Majors by his, and the Adjutants by their B. Majors. 

(17) 1778, April 5. John Laurens to his father from headquarters. Army 
Correspondence. "We expect the pleasure of Genl Lee's company to 
dinner, and are preparing to receive him with distinction." 

(18) n.d. Elias Boudinot, Journal or Historical Recollections of American 
Events During the Revolutionary War (Philadelphia: Frederick Bour- 
quin, 1894), pp. 77, 78: 

When I was setting off from Camp, Genl Washington called me into 
his Room, and in the most earnest manner intreated of me, if I wished 
to gratify him that I would obtain the Exchange ofGenl Lee, for he 
never was more wanted by him than at the present moment, and 
desi-ed that I would not suffer trifles to prevent it. I accordingly 
went, and made a pretty considerably Exchange of Prisoners, but 
quite new propositions were made for the Exchange of Genl Lee, 
which neither the Genral or myself had ever thought of, after reduc- 
ing the Terms to as favourable a Scale as I thought right, I agreed to 
it on Condition, that if General Washington was not pleased with the 
new plan, and Notice was given of his refusal within 24 Hours, the 
Exchange was to be void, without any charge of Failure on my part. 
I arrived at head Quarters about 6 O'clock P.M. and going into the 
General began to tell him of my success — When he interrupted me 
with much Eagerness and asked me if I had exchanged Genl Lee, I 
informed him of what had been done; he replied sit down at this Table, 
and write a letter informing of my Confirmation of the Exchange & 



68 






send one of my Horse Guards immediately to the Enemies lines with 
it, I assured him that next day would be time enough, but he insisted 
on its being immediately done, and I sent him accordingly, fixing the 
next day but one for Genl Lee's coming out to us. — When the day 
arrived the greatest preparations were made for his reception all the 
principal Officers of the Army were drawn up in two lines, advanced 
of the Camp about 2 miles towards the Enemy. — Then the troops with 
the inferior Officers formed a line quite to head Quarters. All the 
Music of the Army attended. The General with a great number of 
principal Officers, and their Suites, rode about four miles on the road 
towards Philadelphia and waited till Genl Lee appeared. — Gen 
Washington dismounted & reed Gen Lee as if he had been his 
brother. — He passed thro' the lines of Officers & the Army, who all 
paid him the highest military Honors to Head Quarters, where Mrs 
Washington was, and there he was entertained with an Elegant 
Dinner, and the Music Playing the whole time. — A Room was as- 
signed him, back of Mrs Washington's Sitting Room, and all his 
Baggage was stowed in it. The next morning he lay very late, and 
Breakfast was detained for him. When he came out. he looked as 
dirty as if he had been in the Street all night, soon after I discovered 
that he had brought a miserable dirty hussy with him from Philadel- 
phia (a British Sergeants Wife) and had actually taken her into his 
Room by a Back Door and she had slept with him that night. 

(19) 1778, April 6. Elizabeth Drinker Journal. Historical Society of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia. 

[April] 6 left I roberts after Breakfast, and proceeded onto ye 
American Picket guard, who upon hearing that we were going to 
headquarters, sent 2 or 3 to guard us further on to another guard 
where Colle. Smith gave us a pass for Hd. Quartrs. where we arrived 
at about 1/2 past one; requested an audience with the General — set 
with his wife/a social pretty kind of woman/ until he came in; a 
number of Officers there, who were very complisant. Tench Tellman 
among ye rest, it was not so long as we could have wish'd, as dinner 
was serv'd in, to which he had invited us, there was 15 of ye officers 
besides ye Gl. and his Wife, Gen Green, and G. Lee. we had an elegant 
dinner, which was soon over: when we went out with ye Genl. wife up 
to her Chamber, and saw no more of him — he told us he could do 
nothing in our busyness further than granting us a pass to Lancaster, 
which he did, and gave us a Letter to IE. Morris for T Wharton after 
dinner, as we came out of ye dining Room, who should we see, but 
Isaac Penington and Charles Logan who had been taken up yester- 
day.... 

(20) 1778, April 8. Valley Forge Orderly Book of General George Weedon of 
the Continental Army under Command of Genl George Washington, in the 
Campaign of 1777-8, pp. 236-7. 

When the guards are assembled on the grand parade, the Brigade 
Major and Field officers of the Day, are carefully to repeat the same.... 
Examination of arms &c, and to order the Adjutants under an arrest, 
when any ill appearance, or deficiency may justly be attributed to his 



69 
l 



Negligence. — Want of uniformity in the Soldiers Cloathing, and its 
indifferent quality; so far from excusing slovenliness, and un soldierly 
neglect in other respects, ought rather to excite each man to Compen- 
sate those blemishes by redoubled attention, to the means which he 
has in his power. For instance; the Soldier may always shave his 
Beard, appear with clean hands & face, and in general, have an air 
of Neatness, which will be auspicious under all disadvantages. 

(21) 1778, April 18. John Laurens to his father. Army Correspondence. 

I have barely time to inclose you a Philadelphia paper and to thank 
you for the epaulettes which you were so kind as to send me. 

The General sends you a handbill which has been artfully thrown out 
by the enemy, and which, unless properly counteracted, will un- 
dubitably tend to foment disunion, perhaps the only and evidently 
the surest method of destroying us. The deserters who have come in 
lately say it is a common talk that overtures are to be made for a 
treaty of peace. Capt Gibbes of the General's guard is now at 
Lancaster, and I have employed him to purchase me summer wear. 
My want of it will depend upon his success. 

(22) 1778, April 23. Charles Willson Peale, "Diary," MS, American 
Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. "Began a Miniature of Major 
Blodget and worked Gl. Greens miniature." 

(23) 1778, April 22. Charles Willson Peale, "Diary," MS, American 
Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. "Coll. Cox sat for the finishing his 
miniature." 

(24) 1778, April 26. Charles Willson Peale, "Diary," MS, American 
Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. "Doctr. McHenry sat for his Minia: 
Omited making my minutes for some time, but I have begun & in part 
finisLad miniatures Doctr. Drapier, Doctr. Craig-Doctr. Cockran, Coll. 
Biddle & Mrs. Biddle." 

(25) 1778, April 27, headquarters. John Laurens to his father. Army Cor- 
respondence. 

I must ask, my dear father, a thousand pardons for this ill-digested 
and incoherent letter. I set out with a good intention, but from my 
first beginning it 'till now, I have undergone perpetual interruption. 

Capt Gibbes has disappointed me in not purchasing the stuff for 
summer wear. I must entreat you to let James procure me as much 
as will make two or three changes, provided the extravagance of the 
price does not forbid it. 



70 






(26) 1778, May 2. Charles Willson Peale, "Diary," MS, American Philosophi- 
cal Society, Philadelphia. "Began 2 Mia. of Captn. Lewis, finished 3d. & 
Rd. for it in full 58 Dollars. Rd. of Coll. Cox 3 Lottery Tickets." 

(27) 1778, May 6. Charles Willson Peale, "Diary," MS, American Philosophi- 
cal Society, Philadelphia. 

Went to Camp to see the Rejoicing for the Good News from France. 

The Troops was paraded and marched to hear a Short discourse 
adapted to the Occation — afterwards they grounded their arms and 
at a signal cannon was fired and each division marched to the Ground 
alloted for them which in the Whole formed two lines at another 
cannon being fired as a signal, thirteen cannon was discharged, and 
then a Running fire beginning at the Right and going to the left — of 
the front Line & from the left to the right of the 2d line and 3 huzzas 
for the King of France, the 13 Cannon fired & the Runing fire 4 huzzas 
for the friendly European Powers, & 13 Cannon Running fire & huzza 
for the States of America after which each Brigade marched to their 
quarters, to be Regaled — the Officers of each Brigade then Walked 
Thirteen abrest with musick to the Arnolds where a Cold Colation 
was provided for them. I had forgot to mention that his Excellency 
went with his Retinue along the Lines before the firing began, each 
Redgement Saluting him as he passed them — and the day was ended 
with much mirth & good humour. I cannot say that I ever see more 
pleasure in so great a number of faces at any one time 

Ld. Stirling Commanded in the Right of the front Line & The Marquis 
de la Fiate on the left & the Baron de Calb the 2d Line — Baron Stubin 
Supertended — 

4th Finished a Miniature of Coll. Beale and Rd. in full 58D — I owe 
him a Box for it. 

Noted in pencil on a blank page "Pd. Mr. Vanarsdolien in full for Rent 
&c to 7th March. I stayed in Camp to finish Doctr. Cockrans, Dr. 
Craigg's Coll. Biddle & Lady, Dr. Hutchingson's and Rd. the pay of 
Dr. McHenry, Dr. Hutchingson, Dr. Cochran Dr. Craig. Coll. Biddle 
in full for his 2 pieces also of Coll. Stroughbuck...." 

(28) 1778, May 7, headquarters. John Laurens to his father. Army Cor- 
respondence. 

I have to ask pardon for omitting in my last, to thank you for the 
striped dimity, which you were so kind as to send me. It did not occur 
to me 'till it was too late to recall the messenger, and my uneasiness 
was the greater, as I had been frequently a delinquent in this way. 

Yesterday we celebrated the new alliance, with as much splendour 
as the short notice would allow. Divine service preceded the rejoicing. 
After a proper pause, the several brigades marched by their right to 
their posts in order of battle, and the line was formed with admirable 
rapidity and precision. Three salutes of artillery, thirteen each, and 



71 



three general discharges of a running fire by the musquetry, were 
given in honour of the king of France, the friendly European powers, 
and the United American States. Loud huzzas! 

The order with which the whole was conducted, the beautiful effect 
of the running fire, which was executed to perfection, the martial 
appearance of the troops, gave sensible pleasure to every one present. 
The whole was managed by signal, and the plan, as formed by Baron 
de Steuben, succeeded in every particular, which is in a great 
measure attributed to his unwearied attention, and to the visible 
progress which the troops have already made, under his discipline. 

A cold collation was given afterwards, at which all the officers of the 
army, and some ladies of the neighbourhood were present. Triumph 
beamed in every countenance. The greatness of mind and policy of 
Louis XVI were extold, and his long life toasted with as much sincerity 
as that of the British king used to be in former times. The General 
received such proofs of the love and attachment of his officers as must 
have given him the most exquisite feelings. 

(29) 1778, June 15. John Laurens to his father. Army Correspondence. 
"Doctor Welford dined with us yesterday, but I had no opportunity of 
conversing with him but in a promiscuous way." 

William Moore's 1779 appeal for payment for damages done to his house, 
"Moore Hall," while the army used it during the Valley Forge encampment 
sheds further light on how furnishings were used by the military. 

(30) 1779, July 28. William Moore claim. National Archives, RG93, M247, 
Roll 102, 443, Washington, D.C. 

To the Honble the Congress of the United States of North America. 



The Memorial of William Moore of Moore Hall Esq. 

Humbly sheweth 

That the said William Moore hath now arrived to a very advanced 
age, and hath long been disabled by the Gout and other Infirmities 
from stirring from his Chamber without Help, and that his valuable 
plantation and Mills near the Valley Forge, from which himself and 
his Wife, in their decliningyears, derived a comfortable Support, have 
been so injured and destroyed by the Continental Army during their 
Encampment and in that Neighbourhood, by carrying off the Fences 
for Firewood from the Plantation and cutting down the Timber for 
the other necessary purposes of the army, that the whole was left as 
a Waste (the Dwelling house and Garden excepted) by which he hath 
been obliged ever since, to purchase every Necessary for his Family 
I use?], and is thereby disabled from making the needful Repairs, 
either of the Plantation or the Mills, which were occupied by the 
Forage Master, and left by him in a ruinous Condition. 



72 



That besides these Damages, five fine young Horses , his Waggon and 
Gears , were taken by Genl. Green's Division in Septr. 1777, and his 
whole Stock of Sheep by another part of the Army soon afterwards. 

That during the time the Army lay in that Neighbourhood, viz, the 
whole Winter 1777 and Spring 1778, he was allow'd but two Rooms 
in his own house, the rest being occupied, first by Col. Biddle, and 
then by Genl. Green, together with a Committee of the Honbl. 
Congress , who had the use and wear of all the Bedding, Linnen and 
other furniture he could spare, together with his Barn, Stables, 
Firewood, and whatever other articles were on the plantation. 

That for these last Articles he never required any Compensation, 
altho he has understood that some others in like Cases have had an 
allowance freely made them where General Officers, or Members of 
Congress have been accommodated at any considerable Expence or 
Damage to private Families, but, leaving this to the good will and [?] 
of the Honbl. Congress themselves, what he more particularly begs 
leave to represent is as follow — viz — 

That although, upon a Valuation made at a very low Rate by the same 
Men who were appointed to value the Damages, done to the other 
Plantations near the Valley forge, he had a Certificate for Two 
thousand, three hundred, and ninety Dollars, for forty Acres of 
Woodland, and for Rails &c, and many of the neighbors recieved 
immediate Pay whereby they were enabled to repair some part of 
their Losses, yet he, the said William Moore, hath been put off by Col. 
Sheriff and others, while the Money was falling in its Nominal Value . 
in such a Manner that the whole sum (if now paid) would not 
recompence him for a sixth [part of his] Damages. But what [re- 
quires] the more Special Notice [and interposition of?] the Honbl. 
Congress is, that altho the Sum formerly allow'd, cannot now be 
deemed an adequate Compensation, yet neither the Present, nor late 
Quarter Master General, however readily they express their Sense 
of the said William Moore's losses, will pay any part of them, giving 
as a Reason that it must be first ascertained what part of the Woods, 
Fences &c were destroy'd in General Mifflin's time, and what part in 
the time of Gen. Green, that each of them may pay accordingly. Now 
as it is impossible for any Farmer to make a Distinction of this kind, 
and much less for one, who was a Cripple confin'd to his house, thus 
requiring an impossible Condition of Payment, appears the same to 
him as a Denial, and therefore he humbly hopes, for the sake of that 
Justice which Congress is undoubtedly desirous of rendering to real 
Sufferers , they will give such orders as they in their Wisdom may 
judge necessary in his Case (which is probably not singular) for 
authorizing the late & present Quartermaster General [to settle?] 
and pay the whole Damages , as the Individual will [thereby?] obtain 
Redress, and the expense be the same to the public . 

He further prays that orders be given for the payment of his five 
horse s, their gears &c — for which he has the Receipts of the Persons 
who took them, with proof of their never having been returned, and 
a Valuation of them, under the Hands of the Waggon Master who 
drove them and knew their value. This payment has been objected 
to under a plea that some of the horses were valued higher than was 



73 



usual without considering that they were young horses and of the best 
kind, and that the same money for the [?] five horses would not now 
purchase three [?] [?] [?] [?] — All which is submitted, with due respect, 
in [?] and suffering Family, who pray that the same may be taken 
into speedy Consideration. 



William Smith 

in Behalf and by Order of William Moore 



Philadelphia July 28th 
1779 



74 






Furnishings in Other Collections with a Washington Provenance 

The following lists Washington's military equipment and other furnishings 
by owner and only includes equipment likely to have been with Washington 
at Valley Forge and used or displayed at headquarters. 

(1) Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union, Mount Vernon, Virginia 

"Braddock" sword (1753-54, L. 36-1/2", 20" triangular blade, silver pom- 
mel and guard, grip of wood, originally wire wrapped). This French sword 
dates to the early 1750s and is believed to have been worn by Washington 
when he was an aide to General Braddock. Washington later gave this 
sword to Major George Lewis, his nephew, who served in the commander- 
in-chiefs guard. 

"State" sword (unknown date, L. 40", 33-1/2" triangular blade, scabbard 
of sheepskin, silver mounted, marked: "FE-SEY/CUTLER his/ MAJES- 
TY," green woven belt with silver fittings; buckles marked IC in rec- 
tangle). George Lewis selected this sword under the terms of 
Washington's will. Oral tradition associates this sword with the one in 
Peale's portrait of Washington (1772) and with his first inauguration. 
Opinions differ as to which sword was Washington's favorite dress sword. 
See the entry for a silver-hilted sword in the Washington's Headquarters 
Museum, Morristown National Historical Park. 

Small sword or "main gauche" (L. 24-1/2", 18-5/8" blade, gilded brass 
pommel and guard with copper wire; single-edged, grooved blade). This 
sword was originally given to Nelly Custis Lewis, who in turn gave it to 
a gentleman, identity unknown, who gave it to Seldon Connor, a brigadier 
general in the Civil War. His daughter, Miss Mabel Connor, returned it 
to Mount Vernon. 

Three black heavy leather pack bags (H. 13", W. 15", D. 7-1/2", center 
compartment framed in wood, collapsible front pocket). It is believed that 
Washington used these bags during Braddock's campaign and the 
Revolution. They have remained at Mount Vernon throughout their 
history. 

Military sash (L. 8', W. 28", red silk in open mesh). This sash, valued in 
Washington's inventory at $20.00, is believed to be the one that 
Washington purchased during the winter of 1774. It descended in the 
family of Howell Lewis, a nephew of Washington, who purchased the sash 
after Washington's death. 

Packing case (approximately 3' square, painted pine, with iron hasp, 
originally hinged with case lock, rope handles, inscribed in white "Geo. 

75 



Washington/Virginia," "G.W.," and "36"). This case may be one of three 
mentioned in an invoice. 

Hair trunk (H. 15", W. 36", D. 15", covered with deerskin, hair side out, 
iron bound edges studded with brass tacks, marked IH/1775 in brass 
tacks with brass plate overtop engraved "Genl Washington.") This trunk 
descended in the family of Martha Washington's granddaughter, Eliza 
Parke Custis Law. It may be the one Washington purchased from John 
Head, April 4, 1776, for John Head, April 4, 1776, for £2.16 (invoice in 
the Washington Papers at the Library of Congress). 

Leather campaign trunk (H. 15", W. 33-3/4", D. 19", iron-bound with 
leather straps, studded with brass tacks, rectangular with rounded top, 
oval brass plate engraved "Genl Washington/No. 3"). This trunk may be 
one Richard Varick, Washington's secretary, included in a 178 1 inventory 
of articles left in his possession. It was described as "1 Large Round Cover 
Hair Trunk." 

Leather campaign trunk (H. 12", W. 27-3/8", D.12", iron-bound, with 
leather straps, studded with brass tacks, rectangular with flat top, oval 
brass plate engraved "Genl. Washing/No. 4"). This trunk is probably one 
of four mentioned by Washington's secretary, Richard Varick, in a 1781 
inventory of articles left in Varick's charge (Washington Papers, Library 
of Congress). The inventory lists "4 Black Leather Campaign Trunks 
with Leather Straps." 

Leather trunk (H. 15", W. 24", D. 15", rectangular shape, bound in metal, 
lock flap bears brass plate engraved "G. Washington/Virginia"). In 1917 
the Ladies' Association purchased this trunk, which may be one of the 
above mentioned set of four although it is not marked. 

Another hair trunk, rectangular in shape, is located at Mount Vernon, 
but it is believed to be one of a group of six purchased in 1783 for 
Washington's military books and papers. 

Camp oedstead (tapering posts, hinged rails, walnut, originally had 
canvas webbing, collapsible). This bedstead descended in Washington's 
great-nephew George Fayette Washington's family and is believed to be 
the one he purchased in 1775 (see expense accounts). Washington 
previously purchased a field bedstead in 1755, location unknown. 

Telescope (L. 33", collapsed L. 10-1/2", large diameter 2-1/4", brass and 
mahogany, four sections, marked Pye Finch Cornhill/London). 
Washington willed this telescope to Lawrence Washington and described 
it as one of two "spy-glasses which constituted part of my equipage during 
the late war." Washington purchased another telescope (also at Mount 



76 



Vernon), manufactured by Dollard of London, late in 1778 in New York 
through Major General Stirling. 

Spurs (L. 4-1/4", W. 2-7/8", silver with leather strap, silver buckle and 
steel rowel with five points, inscribed: "Presented to Lieut. Thomas Lamb, 
by Genl. Washington's taking them from his own Boots, while giving his 
orders to Lieut. Lamb at Valley Forge in Jany. 1778, to proceed to Boston 
for Supplies for the Army"). These spurs descended in the Lamb family 
with the history recounted in the inscription. 

Spurs (L. 3-1/8", W. 2-1/8", silver fitted with chains to hold silver buckles 
and fittings for leather straps, steel rowels with five points). Mrs. 
Washington gave these spurs to Samuel Powell of Philadelphia in whose 
family they descended with a history of having been used by Washington 
during the Revolution. 

Camp towel (one of several), (24" square, homespun linen with drawn 
threads and fringe, monogram "W.n" embroidered in cross stitch). This 
towel descended in the family of Mrs. Washington's granddaughter Eliza 
Park Custis Law. 

Shaving case (H. 3-1/4", W. 9-1/2", D. 7", mahogany with painted initials 
"GW," rectangular with brass bail handle, mirror on inside lid, interior 
tray partitioned for razors and painted blue). This case may be the one 
Washington purchased in 1775 that is listed in the expense accounts 
(Washington Papers, Library of Congress) as "travell. Razor case." The 
1802 sale records also mentioned that it was purchased by Captain 
Thomas Hammond, the husband of the general's niece Mildred. In 1915 
the Ladies' Association acquired it from the family of the man to whom 
Captain Hammond had presented it. 

Camp knife and fork set (L. 7" each, three-tined fork, rectangular handles 
with shaped horn insets, marked "Prosper," interlocking pocket set). This 
pocket set descended in Lord Stirling's family with a history of having 
been given to Lord Stirling by Washington. 

Pair of pistols (L. 15-1/2", mounted in silver with acorn finial trigger 
guards, walnut stocks with flintlocks, brass barrels and fittings, marked 
"Wooley/London," later engraved "G.W.," one pistol damaged). Captain 
Thomas Hammond (husband of Washington's niece, Mildred) acquired 
these pistols at the 1802 private sale of Washington's effects. His des- 



77 



cendants gave them to Mount Vernon in 1917. Several sets of 
Washington owned pistols have survived. Washington is believed to have 
owned as many as 50 firearms during his lifetime. He received pistol 
sets as gifts and likewise gave them as gifts. He is known to have received 
at least one gift set during the encampment at Valley Forge from Mr. 
Thomas Turner (Washington Letters, April 25, 1778). He usually rode 
with pistols in holsters mounted on his saddle. See entries under other 
museums. 

Pistol holsters (L. 13", W. 4-3/4", black leather, tubular shape, fabric 
housing, arrow-shaped oval flaps, bound and ornamented with scarlet 
braid). These holsters remained continuously at Mount Vernon. They 
may be for a pair of pistols (12" in length) Washington ordered from 
Robert Cary & Co. August 12, 177 1. 2 

Additional items in the Mount Vernon Collections, now on display, might 
have been used at Valley Forge but are not military equipment. 

Needle case and pincushion (embroidered silk on satin ground depicting 
a bird on the pincushion). This pincushion is said to have been worked 
by Mrs. Washington during her winter at Valley Forge. 

Miniature of Mrs. Washington (water color on ivory) by Charles Willson 
Peale, c.1776. There is an oral tradition that George Washington wore a 
miniature of Mrs. Washington. 

Powder bag and puff (bag made of deerskin, puff of cotton yard). 
Washington powdered his hair, and equipment such as this would have 
been part of his belongings at Valley Forge. 

Toilet articles including a toothbrush and pocket shaving case. 

Mrs. Washington's trunk (leather covered). A letter (files at Mount 
Vernon) from one of the Washington grandchildren describes Mrs. 
Washington as usually travelling with this trunk. 



1 Ashley Halsey, Jr. The American Rifleman (February, 1968), p. 23. 

2 Halsey, American Rifleman, p. 25. 



78 






(2) Smithsonian Institution 

Camp stool (H. 26", W. 14-1/2", folding walnut frame). Washington 
ordered 18 camp stools upholstered in moreen with brass nails, girth tack 
and bottoming from Plunket Fleeson in 1776. Six of these stools are listed 
in the 1799 inventory of Mount Vernon and all 18 appear in the 1802 
sales records. In 1802 Thomas Peter, husband of Martha Parke Custis, 
purchased six camp stools; one of them descended in that family. 

Continental Army uniform, c. 1782-84 (coat, without military insignia, of 
dark blue cloth with buff facings and plain gilt buttons; waistcoat of buff 
cloth with plain gilt buttons, knee breeches of buff cloth). George 
Washington Parke Custis presented this uniform to the U.S. Government 
c.1854. 

"Service" Sword (L. 36" with 30" blade, flat silver pommel decorated with 
shell, grip of ivory stained green and wound with silver wire, silver 
mounted quillons representing serpent heads where they join the chape 
decorated with trophy of arms on one side and a bear's head on the other, 
each flanked by oak leaves, russet leather scabbard with two silver bands 
marked: "J. Baily/Fish Kill"). This sword was presented to the U.S. 
Government in 1843 by Samuel T. Washington, son of Samuel 
Washington, General Washington's nephew, who received it by 
Washington's bequest. 

Mess kit (chest of wood covered with leather, lined with green wool, 
interior divided into 14 compartments, also containing a tray with nine 
compartments, equipped with four tin pots with detachable, wooden 
handles, six tin plates, three tin platters, two knives and four forks with 
black handles, gridiron with collapsible legs, two tinder boxes, eight glass 
bottles with cork stoppers, two glass bottles for pepper and salt with 
pewter tops). In April of 1776 Washington purchased a mess kit in 
Philadelphia from Benjamin Harbeson; he purchased additional items 
for it the following month (see Washington Papers, Library of Congress). 
This kit may be part of that order. 

Silver camp cup, engraved with Washington's crest, made by William 
Hollingshead, Philadelphia, 1776. 

Field glass and case, collapsible, brass and wood, from the Lewis Collec- 
tion. 

(3) Garvan Collection, Yale University 
Silver camp cup. 



79 



Rose blanket, used by General Washington during the war, from the 
Peter Collection. 



Shaving case with mirror, used by Washington during the war, from the 
Lewis Collection. 

Portable writing case, leather and wood, used by Washington during the 
war, from the Lewis Collection. 

(4) Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Virginia 

Pair of pistols (L.16", 6-15/16" iron barrels, burl walnut stocks, silver 
fittings, acorn trigger guard finial and clamshells on wood). Washington 
gave these pistols to Martha's grandson, George Washington Parke 
Custis. They were presented to Robert E. Lee at the time of his marriage 
to Custis' daughter. Lee's son willed them to the University. 

(5) U.S. Military Academy Museum at West Point, New York 

Pair of pistols (L.14", brass barrels 8", locks 4-5/8" x 3/4", silver mounted, 
engraved with military motifs and British lion and unicorn on side plates, 
bands round the back of their grids inscribed "Gen. G. Washington," 
marked "Hawkins" on the lock plates and "R.W." with London proofmarks 
on their barrels). An English gunsmith named Hawkins worked in 
London between 1750 and 1775. Washington gave these pistols to his 
private secretary, Bartholomew Dandridge. They can be traced from 
Dandridge's estate through several owners, the last of whom donated 
them to West Point. 

(6) Chateau Lafayette, Loire, France 

Scottish pistols (steel, ornately silver inlaid and scroll engraved, marked 
"T. Murdoch" on the lockplates, engraved on a small silver oval above 
each grip "Washington to Lafayette, Legaty"). Thomas Murdoch was a 
gunsmith in Leith, Scotland, from 1730 to 1785. Washington wrote in 
his will "To General de la Fayette I give a pair of finely wrought steel 
pistols, taken from the enemy in the Revolutionary War." 

(7) New York State Library, Albany, New York 

Sword (L.39", blade 33", polished steel pierced pommel and guard, dotted 
with steel beads, fire damaged). This sword was chosen (according to 
instructions in Washington's will) for William Augustine Washington by 
Judge Bushrod Washington. William Augustine Washington was en- 
titled to the first choice of Washington's swords but could not be present 



80 






at the time of distribution. This sword was considered Washington's 
finest sword. 

(8) Washington's Headquarters Museum, Morristown National Historical 
Park, New Jersey 

Sword (blade L. 34-3/4", silver boatshell knuckle guard, pommel, finger 
guards and cross guard, grip of silver wire over wood, flattened hexagonal 
colichemarde blade, marked "J. P." by the maker James Perry who worked 
in London 1767-1777, date stamp on the hilt is for 1769-1770). This sword 
is believed to have been given to Washington by his friend General 
William Darke who served with Washington in the Braddock campaign. 
This sword descended in the family of Washington's oldest nephew until 
1884 when Dr. Lawrence A. Washington's widow sold it to the 
Washington Association of New Jersey for display at Morristown. Arms 
historian Merrill Lindsay believes this sword to have been Washington's 
favorite dress sword and probably the one worn by him at his inaugura- 
tion. 

Sword (small, English, rapier-type, gentlemen's dress sword of polished, 
cut steel, with an ornate counter guard). Oral tradition holds that 
Washington wore this sword at his inauguration as president. 

Hunting sword (agate gripped). 

Hartshorn-Redding military tricorn hat. This hat is one of a very few 
military hats that survive from the Revolution. 

(9) Valley Forge Historical Society, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania-The follow- 
ing items located at the historical society have a history of ownership by 
George Washington. Only those items in the collections that might have 
been used at Valley Forge are included. See appendix III for a complete 
list of the Washington Collection at the historical society. 

George Washington's portmanteau 

"Mortar and pestle owned and used by General Washington at Valley 
Forge" 



Patricia Coflin, "First President's Variety of Swords," copy of article in park files, Valley 
Forge NHP. 



81 



Razor and case owned and used by General Washington during War of 
the Revolution 

Washington's bleeding knife 

Ivory salve jar from Washington's toilet case 

Shaving mirror, belonged to George Washington (?) 

Decanter and wine glass given by George Washington to Col. Wm. 
Augustine Washington 

Knife and fork 

Magnifying glass 

Sash worn by General Washington when he took command of Continental 
Army, July 2, 1775 

4 waistcoat buttons worn by General Washington on the Continental 
Uniform 

Flag which flew outside Washington's headquarters 

Compass with sundial 

Pocket telescope 

Spur 

2 knives and 2 forks "used by General Washington in his camp equip- 
ment" 

Horn tumbler 

Medicine chest 

2 wine glasses "owned and used by General Washington" 

Ivory salve box 

Toilet case 

12 silver camp cups 



82 






( 10) Mercer Museum, Bucks County Historical Society, Doylestown, Pennsyl- 
vania 

Chippendale chair (H.34-3/16", W.24-1/4", D.16-5/8", walnut with carved 
shells on knees and side rails, claw and ball front feet, c.1775, accession 
#14916). This chair has a history of having descended in the family of 
Henry Woodman who originally acquired the chair from the Isaac Potts 
family (see appendix IV for copies of the 1902 correspondence regarding 
this chair). According to family tradition this chair was one of a set used 
by Washington at Valley Forge. As Isaac Potts was not living in the house 
at the time, it is doubtful that he owned the furnishings, for the use of 
which Washington paid Mrs. Hewes. However, the chair is included here 
because it is possible that Isaac Potts acquired the chair from Mrs. Hewes. 



83 



FURNISHING PLAN 



GENERAL WASHINGTON'S OFFICE 

At each of his headquarters, Washington set aside a room for his private of- 
fice. In this room, he dictated his correspondence, kept his personal files, 
held private meetings, and worked and read. The room provided some 
measure of quiet and privacy. At Mount Vernon, Washington is known to 
have risen early, shaved in his office so as not to disturb Martha, and worked 
until he met Martha for breakfast. His daily schedule during wartime was 
similar to that at Mount Vernon. For example, his practice of shaving in his 
office is believed to have been carried out during the wartime encampments. 
Shaving apparatus recommended for placement in this room was probably 
stored and brought out only when in use. 

One military scholar suggests that the series of trunks numbered 1-4 and 
engraved with General Washington's name may have contained his personal 
files. (See Evidence of Original Furnishings, furnishings at Mount Vernon 
for further discussion of these trunks.) 



Barrier and Label 

Washington's office is one of the few rooms in the house with a single use; it 
is not likely that this room was ever converted for use as sleeping quarters, 
unlike the aides' room and dining room. The room barrier is a simple glass 
enclosure in the doorway, with a pictorial label showing Washington dictat- 
ing to an aide, holding a small staff meeting, or being shaved by his body ser- 
vant, Billy Lee. 





Object 








Documentation 


Location 


Recommendation 


1-2 


DESK and BOOKCASE, Philadel- 


Between 


Reproduce 




phia or Pennsylvania, walnut, 1740- 

60 

Thomas Potts 1762 inventory 


windows 










3-8 


SIX LEATHER-BOTTOMED 


One at 


UseVAFO75.22.01-.02 




CHAIRS, Philadelphia or Pennsyl- 


desk, four 


(on loan) until reproduc- 




vania, walnut, 1740-60 


at table, 


tions (6) can be pur- 




Thomas Potts 1762 inventory 


and one on 
east wall 


chased. 



85 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



On tabletop Acquire/reproduce 



9-10 TABLE, square, walnut, c. 1740-60; Against VAFO 75.119 

BAIZE COVER to overhang tabletop glass bar- 
Thomas Potts 1762 inventory rier 

11 BOOKCASE, walnut, lined with 
green baize, approximately 3' long, 
10" high, 10" deep 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, June 4, 1776; 
Mount Vernon inventory (appendix 
V). The dimensions are based on the 
general size of 18th century military 
manuals Washington was likely to 
have had with him. See also Mount 
Vernon inventory. 

12 ASSORTED MILITARY MANUALS 
(approximately 3'), 18th century 
Mount Vernon inventory; Washington 
expense accounts for purchase of book- 
case, June 4, 1776 



13 TABLE or STAND, small, walnut, 
1740-60 
Thomas Potts 1762 inventory 

14-17 CAMPAIGN TRUNKS, four, leather, 
various dimensions including 15" x 
33-3/4" x 19" and 12" x 27-3/8" x 12", 
iron bound with leather straps, 
studded with brass tacks, rectangular 
shape, rounded or flat top with 
engraved plates "Gen. 
Washington/No. 1" ("2," "3," and "4"); 
CORRESPONDENCE; and RED 
TAPE 

Mount Vernon collections and 
Richard Varick's 1781 inventory, 
Washington Papers, Library of Con- 
gress 

18-21 NEWSPAPERS, 18th century, Table and Reproduce 

British, and copies of the Philadel- desk tops 

phia Inquirer (published in Reading), 
dated January -June 1778 
John Laurens' correspondence, 
November 29, 1777, and April 18, 
1778 



In book- 


Acquire one or two 


case; place 


original 18th century 


two 


manuals listed in the 


originals 


Mount Vernon inven- 


elsewhere 


tory; reproduce bind- 


in the room 


ings on remaining 




manuals. 


Under win- 


Park collections 


dow, near 




desk 




North and 


Reproduce, using 


west walls, 


Mount Vernon 


one to be 


prototypes 


open and 




filled with 




correspon- 




dence 




wrapped in 




red tape 





80 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



22-24 Articles of clothing to include HAT, In closet 

GREAT COAT, and GLOVES, 18th and around 

century style the room 

Washington expense accounts 
February 27, 1778, May 8, 1777, and 
May 27, 1777; period attire for an of- 
ficer and gentleman of the 18th cen- 
tury 

25 PAIR OF PISTOLS in a saddle Across a 

holster, black leather, with scarlet chair back 

braid 

Collections at Mount Vernon, 
Washington and Lee University, and 
the U.S. Military Academy Museum 
at West Point; The Writings of Georg e 
Washing ton. April 25, 1778 



26-28 SWORD, SCABBARD, and Window sill 

CHATELAINE, 1750-75 or desk 

Several swords are documented as 
having been used by Washington. See 
collections at Mount Vernon; Smith- 
sonian Institution; New York State 
Library, Albany, NY; Morristown, 
Washington's Headquarters Museum 

29-30 SPURS and SPUR LEATHERS, sil- 
ver with silver fittings and steel five- 
pointed rowels, c.1775 
Collections at Mount Vernon and Val- 
ley Forge Historical Society; see also 
Washington expense account, April 
14, 1778. 

31 PAPER, 18th century style, blank Desk and 

and written upon, one ream, two sizes table tops 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, December 6, 
1775, and April 14, 1778 

32-33 WAFERS, one box, and 1/2 to 1 lb. of Desk and 
SEALING WAX table tops 

Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, December 6, 
1775, and May 7, 1777 

34-43 QUILL PENS, six; INK; PEWTER IN- Desk and 
KWELL; PEWTER SANDER table tops 

(SANDBOX?); a PEN KNIFE; and 
CREAMWARE INKWELL and 
SANDER SET 

Correspondence of Tench Tilghman, 
February 2, 1778 



Reproduce 



Reproduce holster from 
a set at Mount Vernon 
made of black leather, 
tubular shape, fabric 
housing, ornamented 
with scarlet braid; 
reproduce pistol stocks 
from a pair owned by 
George Washington 

Reproduce 



Near sword Acquire/reproduce 



Reproduce 



Acquire/reproduce 



Acquire pewter sander, 
pewter inkwell, and pen 
knife; reproduce quill 
pens and ink; use 
creamware inkwell and 
sander set in park col- 
lections, VAFO 74.15 



87 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



44 LOOKING GLASS, c. 1700-60, 
mahogany frame 
Thomas Potts 1762 inventory 

Ab-Al Shaving equipment to include a 

RAZOR CASE (1.9 12", d.7", h.3 1/4", 
mahogany, brass bail handle, mirror 
on inside lid, partitioned tray inside), 
SHAVING BRUSH, and MUG 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, April 6, 1775, 
and in 1777: 1 brush, 2 china 
mugs I To 1 glass mug I To 1 brush 
for [?]"; razor cases in collections at 
Mount Vernon, Garvan Collection at 
Yale University, and at the Valley 
Forge Historical Society 

48-51 Ceramic WASH BASIN and 

PITCHER with cover, c. 1775-80; 
SOAP DISH; SOAP 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, August 9, 1775, 
January 1776, February 8, 1776, 
March 11, 1776, April 25, 1776, May 
4, 1776, and May 1776 (Rhinelander 
bill) 

52 CAMP TOWEL, 24" square, linen 
with drawn threads and fringe, 
c. 1770-80 
Mount Vernon collections 



East wall 



On window 
sill or in 
closet 



VAFO 75.129 



Park collections; ac- 
quire brush 



On window 
sill or in 
closet 



Acquire basin, pitcher, 
and soap dish; 
reproduce soap 



Folded 
near basin 



Reproduce 



53 CASE OF SURVEYING INSTRU- 
MENTS, c.1770-76 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, February 1777: 
"a case of surveying instruments... for 
the General" 

54 TELESCOPE, brass and mahogany, 
collapsible, 33" long, English 
Mount Vernon collections and 
Washington's expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, August 6, 1777 

55 EYEGLASSES and CASE, silver, 
c.1770 

Washington is known to have worn 
glasses. 

56 SNUFF BOX, c.1770, silver or brass 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, April 18, 1778 



Desk 



Acquire 



Desk 



VAFO 74.31 



Desk or 
bookcase 



Desk 



VAFO 74.44. 1-.2 



Acquire 



8S 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



57 POWDERING BAG (1. 12 1/2") and 
PUFF (d. 3 1/2"), bag of deerskin and 
puff of cotton yarn 

Mount Vernon collections and 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, May 7, 1777 

58 CARPET, Brussels or Wilton 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, April 1776. 
Washington's purchase of two expen- 
sive carpets suggests a Brussels or Wil- 
ton. Although Washington purchased 
two large pieces of carpet, it is likely 
they were cut down to fit. Sizing a 
carpet would be relatively easy be- 
cause it came in 27" strips that were 
sewn together as needed. One of the 
two carpeting orders could have been 
divided into two smaller carpets that 
would fit into the rooms at the Valley 
Forge Headquarters. 

59-61 ANDIRONS, SHOVEL, and TONGS, 
brass, c. 1776 

The Writings of George Washington. 
January 11, 1778; Washington ex- 
pense accounts, Washington Papers, 
May 1776 

62 HEARTH BRUSH, wood and hair, 
c.1775. 

Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, May 30, 1776 

63 PAIR OF BRASS CANDLESTICKS, 

c.1776 

Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, May 30, 1776, 
and September 5, 1777 



Near basin Reproduce 



Area rug 
leaving 
some floor 
showing. 



Closet; it 
was period 
practice to 
display 
candle- 
sticks only 
when in 
use. 



Reproduce 



Fireplace Reproduce 



Fireplace Acquire 



VAFO 75.153; acquire 
one 



GENERAL AND MRS. WASHINGTON'S BEDROOM 

General and Mrs. Washington's bedroom is documented as being on the 
second floor. It is not known, however, which room on that floor was theirs. 
It has traditionally been placed in the back bedroom, where it is recom- 
mended that it remain. This room will be the only room that shows visible 
evidence of Martha Washington's presence. Because of the lack of space at 



89 



headquarters, the bedchamber was also used as a parlor. Mrs. Washington 
occasionally entertained visitors in her chamber, and it would have been fur- 
nished (after Washington's Office) with the best furniture available. Mrs. 
Washington played an important role in managing the Washington 
household at Valley Forge. General Washington's house steward was fired 
shortly after Mrs. Washington arrived; she likely assumed many of the 
steward's supervisory duties. As she was also very involved in the daily 
management of Mount Vernon, it would not have been unusual for her to 
take on these chores. 

According to the curator at Mount Vernon, Mrs. Washington was not very in- 
terested in needlework. Very little needlework survives with a history of 
having been done by Martha Washington. She most likely occupied her time 
running the household, providing for and entertaining guests, and cor- 
responding with her family. She occasionally helped with some of the clerical 
work. 



Barrier and Label 

The barrier for General and Mrs. Washington's bedroom is a simple glass 
enclosure at the door. This room served a dual purpose as General and Mrs. 
Washington's sleeping quarters and as Mrs. Washington's sitting room. The 
optional interior wayside could depict the room in use as a sitting room. 

Object 
Documentation Location Recommendation 

1 BEDSTEAD, Philadelphia or Pennsyl- West wall Reproduce. VAFO 
vania, 1750-70, high post with canopy 75.122 could be used 

top until a better example 

Thomas Potts 1762 inventory can be acquired. 



1 Interview, 1987, with Christine Meadows, Curator, Mount Vernon, Virginia. 

2 Fitzgerald, ed., The Writings of Washington, p. xiiv. 



90 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



2-16 



17 



18 



FEATHER BED and COVER, MAT- 
TRESS and COVER, two LINEN 
SHEETS, two PILLOWS and two 
PILLOWCASES, two BLANKETS, 
BOLSTER, linen BOLSTER CASE, 
and one white COUNTERPANE 
Thomas Potts 1762 inventory and 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, January 25, 
1776, April 16, 1776, and April 20, 
1776 



BED HANGINGS, furniture check, 
c.1775, to include top, with shaped 
valance, four side curtains, head cur- 
tain, and ruffles 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, January 25, 
1776, and May 17, 1776. Washington 
ordered a furniture check in January 
and had bed curtains made in May. 
These curtains were probably for his 
field bedstead; however, they would 
not be inappropriate in this room. He 
may in fact have had to provide his 
own bedhangings. (See Abbott Lowell 
Cummings, Bed Hangings, for refer- 
ences on styles for the period.) 

WINDOW CURTAINS, two pairs, fur- 
niture check or plain linen, to match 
bed hangings, single-panel, double 
drapery style, operated with cord, 
tape, and brass rings 
In the mid- 18th century curtains were 
rarely found in the average 
household. Only the well-to-do could 
afford the fabric. When curtains were 
mentioned in 18th century inven- 
tories, they were usually located in 
bed chambers. Curtains were not 
listed in the 1762 Potts inventory; 
however, General and Mrs. 
Washington had curtains at Mount 
Vernon and would likely have used 
them at Valley Forge. See 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, January 25, 
1776, for fabric purchases. 



Bed 



Bed 



At each 
window 



VAFO 76.14.6 and 
76.14.11 (sheets), 
76.14.20 (bolster and 
bolster case), 76.14.1 
(feather bed and cover), 
76.14.2 (mattress and 
mattress cover), 
76.14.13 (pillows and 
pillowcases), 76.14.22 
and 76.14.7 (two 
blankets); reproduce 
counterpane. Modern 
sheets, etc., may be sub- 
stituted for period items 
where not visible. 

Reproduce 



Reproduce 



91 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



19 CARPET, Brussels or Wilton to Area rug 
match Washington's office carpet leaving 
Washington expense accounts, some floor 
Washington Papers, April 1776. The showing 
amount of carpeting bought in 1776 

for the commander-in-chief would 
have been too large for any room in 
the Valley Forge Headquarters but 
could have been divided as has been 
suggested above (Office, #58). 

20 DRESSING TABLE, c. 1750, walnut Between 
Thomas Potts 1762 inventory windows 

21 CHEST OF DRAWERS, walnut or North wall 
mahogany, Pennsylvania, c.1760 

Thomas Potts 1762 inventory 

22 TEA TABLE, walnut, Pennsylvania, In front of 
1750 fireplace 
Thomas Potts 1762 inventory 

23-28 RUSH BOTTOM CHAIRS, six, Pen- Two at tea 
nsylvania, 1750-60 table, four 

Thomas Potts 1762 inventory around the 

walls 



Reproduce 



Acquire/reproduce 



VAFO 75.121 (VAFO 
75.33 would be a 
suitable alternative) 

VAFO 75.131 



Acquire/reproduce a 
matched set; until that 
time use VAFO 75.186 
and 75.187 



29 LADIES' WRITING DESK (lap size) 
with PAPER, QUILL PENS, and 
INK,c.l775 

Some correspondence exists that Mar- 
tha Washington wrote, for example, 
her letter to Mercy Warren, March 7, 
1778 



On window 
sill or chair 



Acquire paper; 
reproduce pens and ink 



30 CHAMBER POTS, two, earthenware, 
c.1775 

Washington's expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, September 1775, 
January 1776, March 11, 1776, May 
4, 1776, and August 7, 1777 

31-32 WASH BASIN and COVERED 
PITCHER, earthenware, c.1775 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, January 1776, 
March 11, 1776, April 16, 1776, April 
25, 1776, May 4, 1776, and May 30, 
1776 



Closet floor Acquire 



On window 
sill or in 
closet 



Acquire 



33 MIRROR, small, walnut or mahogany On dress- 
frame, c. 1 750-70 ing table 
Thomas Potts 1762 inventory 



VAFO 74.43 



92 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



34-38 Toilet articles to include TOILET 
BOTTLES, COMB, BRUSH, 
TOOTHBRUSH, and a HAND MIR- 
ROR, and MINIATURE OF MRS. 
WASHINGTON 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, April 6, 1 777 (ref- 
erence to a hand glass for Mrs. 
Washington); period practice; and 
John Laurens' correspondence for ref- 
erence to toiletries sent to him, 
February 9, 1778, and February 15, 
1778. The miniature of Mrs. 
Washington remains in the Mount 
Vernon collection. 

39 CANDLESTICKS, pair, brass, c. 1776 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, May 30, 1776, 
and September 5, 1777 



40 TRUNK (L. 35", D. 19 1/2", H. 19 
1/2"), leather covered with brass 
nails, c.1775 

According to Christine Meadows 
(curator at Mount Vernon) there is a 
trunk at Mount Vernon that Martha's 
grandchildren referred to as her 
travelling trunk. 

41-42 BIBLE and PRAYER BOOK, 

English, 1700-75 
According to oral tradition it was 
Martha Washington's practice to read 
the Bible after breakfast. In 1784 she 
sent prayer books to her 
grandchildren (letter to Mrs. Fanny 
Washington, New York, June 8, 1789). 

43 HAT BOX, 1750-75 

Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, May 8, 1777 

44-45 LINEN TOWELS, two, c.1775 
Mount Vernon inventory 



Dressing 
table 



Acquire toilet articles; 
reproduce miniature 



In closet; it 
was period 
practice to 
display 
candle- 
sticks only 
when in 
use. 

South wall 
between 
closet and 
fireplace 



Acquire 



Acquire/reproduce 



On chair or 
bureau 



Acquire 



In closet 



Folded 
near wash 
basin 



Acquire 



VAFO 76.14.23 and 
76. 14. 19, or reproduce 



93 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



46 PAIR OF GLOVES, man's, white kid, Dressing Reproduce 

c.1775 table 

Numerous glove purchases 
throughout the Washington expense 
accounts, Washington Papers, 
January 10, 1777, May 7, 1777, 
February 27, 1778, and June 5, 1778 

47-48 SLIPPERS, two pairs, lady's and 
gentleman's, c.1775 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, February 12, 
1776, and November 1775 



On closet 
floor or 
shelf 



Reproduce 



49 BOOTS, one pair, c.1775 

The expense accounts show that 
Washington had several changes of 
clothes with him. It is likely he also 
had an extra pair of boots. 

50-56 CLOTHING, folded, such as dressing 
gown, night cap, shirt, waistcoat, 
breeches, stock, and stockings 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, July 25, 1775, 
September 20, 1776, and April 30, 
1777; 1778 list of repairs 

57-60 ANDIRONS, SHOVEL, TONGS, and 
FENDER, c.1776 

Writings of Washington, January 11, 
1778, and Washington expense ac- 
counts, Washington Papers, May 
1776, and May 30, 1776 



Closet 



Reproduce 



Reproduce 



In partially 
open 

drawer or 
on a chair 
or on top of 
chest of 
drawers 



Fireplace Acquire/reproduce 



Fireplace Acquire 



61 HEARTH BRUSH, wood and hair, 

c.1775 

Washington expense accounts, 

Washington Papers, May 30, 1776 

62-75 Breakfast set to include one On tea Reproduce 

TEAPOT, one CHOCOLATE POT, table 

two CUPS AND SAUCERS, two and/or win- 

PLATES, one small PLATE for but- dow sill 

ter, one small PITCHER, two small 
SERVING PLATTERS, one SUGAR 
DISH, porcelain or earthenware, 
c.1775, and one Japanned TRAY 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, July 5, 1775, 
March 11, 1776, and April and May 
1776 



94 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



76-79 Two FORKS, two KNIVES, ivory, 
black or green handled, c.1775 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, April 13, 1776 

80-81 Two TEASPOONS, silver, c.1775 
Period practice 

82 One Japanned tin BREAD BASKET, 
c.1775 

Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, May 30, 1776 

83-84 Two damask or linen NAPKINS, 
c.1775 

Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, July 5, 1775, and 
January 25, 1776 

85 PORTMANTEAU, c.1775 

Mount Vernon inventory and Valley 
Forge Orderly Book, March 27, 1778 

86 COMMODE CHAIR, leather-bot- 
tomed, c.1775 

Period practice 



On tea table Park collections 



On tea table Acquire 



On tea table Acquire 



On tea 
table or 
chairs 



Acquire/reproduce 



In closet Park collections 

(reproductions) 



Near win- Park collections 
dow 



AIDES' ROOM 

Exactly how this room was used is not known. One of the few clues to second 
floor usage refers to Mrs. Washington's sitting room being near the small 
room (18th century references). After the dining hut was built, the 
Washingtons may have used both of the main upstairs rooms. Prior to the 
building of the dining hut, however, it is hard to imagine the downstairs 
aides' room being used for working, dining, and sleeping. It is more logical to 
place sleeping quarters for some of the aides on the second floor. In fact both 
this room and the small one may have been used for the aides when there 
was no special guest. Washington's expense accounts show that he provided 
many of the basic necessities for his staff. Between 1775 and 1777 he pur- 
chased 16 chamber pots, 13 wash basins, and 6 pitchers. 



Barrier and Label 

Visitors will view this room over a glass barrier in the doorway. Behind this 
barrier three camp beds, two set up, one folded, and officers' accoutrements 
will be displayed. A total of three camp beds could be placed in this room, 
barely allowing space for luggage and getting in and out of the beds. An inte- 



95 



rior wayside will depict the room as if it were fully furnished with three camp 
beds set up. A wall-mounted exhibit panel depicting the aides and telling 
something about each of them could be placed in the upstairs hallway. 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



1-3 FOLDING CAMP BEDS, three, 
mahogany, c.1777 

Camp beds or folding cots were a part 
of an officer's equipage. 



4-9 BED HANGINGS (striped dimity), 
MATTRESS (hair), SHEETS (linen), 
PILLOW and BED (feather), and 
BLANKET 

Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, April 1776, lists 
the purchase of a bed, bolster, and pil- 
lows. Laurens' correspondence, May 

7, 1778, describes a dimity purchase. 

10-13 Two PORTMANTEAUS and two 
VALISES, made of duck, c.1775 
See collections at Mount Vernon for 
Washington's military equipment and 
Valley Forge Orderly Book, March 27, 
1778. General Washington hoped to 
reduce the amount of army baggage, 
and he expected his officers to set an 
example. 

14 CANDLEST AND, Pennsylvania, wal- 
nut, c.1775 

Thomas Potts 1762 inventory 

15 PORTABLE WRITING DESK, wal- 
nut or mahogany, c.1775 

A writing desk is a likely piece of 
officer's equipage. A large quantity of 
personal correspondence from these of- 
ficers has survived. 

16-17 PORTABLE SHAVING BOX and/or 
SHAVING EQUIPMENT, c.1775 
The officers and soldiers would have 
shaved every day. For an example see 
the Valley Forge Orderly Book, April 

8, 1778. 



East wall 
and north 
wall; folded 
cot under 
southwest 
window 



Bedstead 



At the foot 
of the bed 
and east 
closet, one 
displayed 
open 



Between 
windows 



On bed, 
window 
seat, or 
table 



In open 
portman- 
teau or win- 
dow seat 



Reproduce; see ex- 
amples in the collec- 
tions at Mount Vernon, 
Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, and The William 
Penn Museum (Harris- 
burg). 

Reproduce bed hang- 
ings, mattress, sheets, 
pillow, and bed; use 
blanket in park collec- 
tions, VAFO 76.14.21 



Reproduce 



VAFO 75.28 or 75.165 



Acquire/reproduce 



Acquire 



96 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



18 SMALL MIRROR, walnut or 
mahogany frame, c. 1755-65 
Thomas Potts 1762 inventory lists a 
"small looking glass" 

19 TRAVELLING DECANTER, flat 
sided glass, c.1770, and LIQUOR BOX 
See Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, May 10, 1777, 
March 19, 1776, April 8, 1776, and 
July 31, 1775, for Madeira purchases. 
Also a travelling decanter set would 

be a likely piece of officer's equipage. 

20-21 Two CAMP CUPS, silver, c.1770 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, March 25, 1776. 
It is likely that all officers carried 
camp cups. 

22-23 Two folding camp CANDLESTICKS, 
brass or pewter, c.1775 
Folding candlesticks would have been 
part of an officer's equipage. 

24-30 Two TOBACCO BOXES, brass, 1750- 
75; two CLAY PIPES; and two 
BRASS TAMPERS 
Smoking apparatus was likely part of 
an officer's equipage. 

31 CHAIR, ladderback, Pennsylvania, 
c. 1725-50 

Thomas Potts 1762 inventory lists a 
large number of inexpensive chairs. 

32-34 ANDIRONS, SHOVEL, and TONGS, 
wrought iron, 1760-75 
Thomas Potts 1762 inventory. 

35 PAIR OF SHOES, leather, with buck- 
les, c.1775 

Most of the time the officers would 
have worn boots to be ready to go out 
but they would have had shoes with 
them also. 



West wall, Acquire 



near win- 
dow 



On stand 
and floor 



Near 
decanter 



On table 
and mantel 



On table 



South wall 
next to 
fireplace 



Partially 
under bed 
or in open 
portman- 
teau 



Acquire decanter; use 
VAFO 75.167, liquor 
box in park collection 



Reproduce 



Reproduce 



VAFO 76.9; acquire one 
tobacco box; reproduce 
clay pipes 



VAFO 75.160 



Fireplace Acquire 



Reproduce 



97 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



36-37 Two CHAMBER POTS, earthenware, Under bed 
c.1775 and in 

Washington expense accounts, closet 

Washington Papers, September 1775, 
January 1776, August 7, 1777, March 
11, 1776, and May 4, 1776. Early ex- 
pense accounts record purchasing 16 
chamberpots. Each member of head- 
quarters staff most likely had his own 
chamber pot. 

38-41 Two GREAT COATS, wool, c.1775, In closet 

and two HATS, c.1775 
Officers wore great coats in cold 
weather. Hats were a part of everyday 
wear. 

42 GLOVES, c.1775 In open 

John Laurens' correspondence, portman- 

November 29, 1777 teau 

43-47 Two COMBS, HAIR POWDER, In open 

POMATUM, POWDERING BAG portman- 

John Laurens' correspondence, teau 

February 9, 1778, and February 15, 
1778 



Acquire 



Reproduce 



Reproduce 



Acquire or reproduce 



48-52 BOLTS OF SCARLET CLOTH, 

corded dimity (for breeches), INDIGO 
BLUE and BUFF CLOTH, GOLD 
EPAULETTES, double gilt BUT- 
TONS 

John Laurens' correspondence, 
February 9, 1778, February 15, 1778, 
February 24, 1778, April 18, 1778, 
and April 27, 1778 

53-55 Three BOOKS, published prior to 
1778, to include La Tactique de 
Ghibert 

John Laurens' correspondence, 
February 28, 1778, and March 22, 
1778 

56-58 SWORD, SCABBARD, and SWORD 
BELT, c. 1750-75 

Swords were apart of the military 
uniform. 

59-60 SPURS and SPUR LEATHERS, sil- 
ver fittings, c.1775 

Spurs were a part of the officer's equi- 
page. 



On bed as 
if just 
received 



Reproduce 



On table, in 


Acquire/reproduce bind 


open 


ings 


portman- 




teau, 




and/or on 




window sill 




On chair 


Reproduce 



On chair or Reproduce 
in closet 



98 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



61-64 Two pairs of PISTOL HOLSTERS 

and two pairs of PISTOL HANDLES, 
1770-75 

The officers would have carried pis- 
tols when riding. See documentation 
for Washington's pistols in the section 
on his office. 

65-66 Two NEWSPAPERS, 1777, from New 
York, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, 
or Virginia, areas from which the 
aides came 

John Laurens' correspondence, 
November 29, 1777, and April 18, 
1778 

67-68 WASH BASIN and COVERED 
PITCHER, earthenware, c.1776 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, January 1776, 
March 11, 1776, April 16 and April 
25, 1 776, and May 4 and May 30, 
1776 

69 TOWEL 

Mount Vernon inventory 



70 CARPET, ingrain 

Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, April 20, 1776, 
list "one Scots carpet. " 



On chair 
and/or in 
closet 



Reproduce 



On table or 
window sill 



Reproduce 



On floor of 
closet 



Acquire 



Folded 
near wash 
basin 

Floor 



Reproduce 



Reproduce 



SMALL ROOM/GUEST ROOM 

Elias Boudinot was probably referring to this room when he wrote of General 
Lee's arrival at Headquarters: "A Room was assigned him. Back of Mrs. 
Washington's Sitting Room and all his Baggage was stowed in it." An aide 
probably used this room as his quarters when there were no guests. The fur- 
nishings reflect General Lee's visit with his baggage there. 



Barrier and Label 

The barrier will go across the doorway so there will be little room for an inte- 
rior wayside. If one is installed, it could depict the room as if it were set up 
for two aides. 



99 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



1-14 BEDSTEAD, MATTRESS, South wall 

FEATHER BED, two PILLOWS, two 
LINEN SHEETS, two LINEN PIL- 
LOWCASES, two BLANKETS, one 
BOLSTER PILLOW and CASE, and 
one COVERLET 

Thomas Potts 1762 inventory lists two 
bedsteads along with sheets, a 
blanket, and coverlets. Washington's 
expense accounts (January 25, 1776, 
April 16, 1776, and April 20, 1776) 
also show a large purchase of linen 
cloth and several counterpanes. 

15 CHAMBERPOT, earthenware, c. 1775 On floor 
Washington expense accounts, near foot of 

Washington Papers, September 1775, bed 
January 1776, March 1, 1776, and 
May 4, 1776 

16-17 WASH BASIN and PITCHER, earth- On window 
enware or china, c.1775 sill 

Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, January 1776, 
March 11, 1776, April 16, 1776, April 
25, 1776, May 4, 1776, and May 30, 
1776 

18-21 Toilet articles to include COMB, On window 

TOOTHBRUSH, SHAVING EQUIP- sill 
MENT (razors and case), and PORT- 
ABLE SHAVING MIRROR 
Period practice and John Laurens' cor- 
respondence refers to toiletries sent to 
him, February 9 and 15, 1778. See 
also Valley Forge Orderly Book, April 
8, 1778. 

22 One linen TOWEL, c.1775 
Mount Vernon inventory 



Reproduce bedding; 
bedstead, VAFO 75.127, 
park collections 



Acquire 



Acquire 



Acquire 



Folded 
near wash 
basin 



VAFO 76.14.10 



23 RUSH BOTTOM CHAIR, walnut, lad- 
der back, c. 1720-60 
Thomas Potts 1762 inventory 

24-25 Two leather-covered TRUNKS, c.1775 On floor 
Elias Boudinot's Journal, p. 77, refers against 
to "Baggage. " north wall 

26-27 PORTMANTEAU and VALISE, On floor 

c.1775 against 

Elias Boudinot's Journal, p. 77, refers north wall 
to "Baggage." 



North wall VAFO 75.40 



Reproduce 



VAFO 75.88; acquire 
valise 



100 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



28-33 Articles of clothing to include Resting on Reproduce 

BOOTS, SPURS, HAT, GLOVES, and trunks 
GREAT COAT, c. 1775 
These articles of wear were standard 
issue for an officer. See references to 
clothing in aides' room and 
Washington's office and bedroom. 

34 SMALL STRONG BOX, c. 1775 On window VAFO 74.18 

Period practice sill or floor 



AIDES' WORK ROOM/DINING ROOM 

Every morning during the encampment Washington's aides and secretaries 
toiled in this room over the headquarters' paperwork — writing letters, copy- 
ing letters into the letter-books, recording the commander-in-chiefs expen- 
ses, drafting general orders. Also during the morning the several brigade 
and division adjutants would come by to copy the orders of the day into their 
orderly books. In mid-afternoon, probably about 2:30, the aides had to 
suspend their work so that the room could be set up for the commander-in- 
chiefs dinner, which his aides and other invited officers shared with him. 
For this purpose probably two of the morning's work tables were put together 
to form a dining table, around which Washington and about nine of his of- 
ficers could sit on folding campstools. The room was too small — barely 13-1/2 
feet square — to permit putting all three of the matching tables together as in- 
tended when Washington ordered them. After dinner, which doubled as a 
staff meeting and might last two or three hours, the servants would clear 
everything away and the room would again be available for administrative ac- 
tivities well into the night. The commander-in-chief evidently grew tired of 
the cramped space for dining and the inconvenience of having to turn the 
aides' office into a dining room and back again every day, for on March 7, 
1778, Mrs. Washington reported to a friend that the general had had "a log 
cabben built to dine in." After that, the aides presumably had the use of 
their office without this daily interruption. 

In view of this double function, the park is presented with the option of dis- 
playing this room either as the aides' office or as the commander-in-chiefs 
dining room. Since some of the same furniture would be used in either case, 
rearranged and with different accessories, it would be relatively simple to 
switch displays from time to time. Especially suitable times for showing the 
dinner setting would be February 22, when General Washington's birthday 
was celebrated with a dinner, and April 6, when General and Mrs. 
Washington staged an "elegant dinner" to celebrate Gen. Charles Lee's 
release in a prisoner exchange. Interpreters could use these occasions to 
point out that they were exceptional and that Washington and his officers 



101 



normally dined more frugally, albeit somewhat better than the rank and file 
under their command. 



Aides' Work Room (Option 1) 

Contemporary accounts tell us only of "an increase of Business in the Way of 
Paper, Pens and ink" carried on "in a small, noisy, crowded room" (see p. 26, 
above). While there is no definitive list of who would have been working in 
the aides' office at any given time, it appears that in February 1778 those of- 
ficers most likely to have been working there daily were Lt. Col. Alexander 
Hamilton, principal aide-de-camp to General Washington; Lt. Col. Robert 
Hanson Harrison, Washington's military secretary; Lt. Col. John Laurens 
and Capt. Tench Tilghman, aides; and perhaps one or two under-secretaries. 
Hamilton drafted most of the letters to Congress and to state governors and 
legislatures and translated French documents; Harrison, Laurens, and 
Tilghman were responsible for writing and copying upwards of 75 per cent of 
the correspondence sent out from headquarters at Valley Forge. As keeper of 
the commander-in-chiefs accounts, Capt. Caleb Gibbs may also have had a 
place to work and store papers in the aides' work room. If these five men 
regularly worked here and other officers came and went on headquarters 
business through the day, the room must indeed have been as noisy and 
crowded as John Laurens said. 

To serve the needs of the aides and visiting adjutants, the room contains a 
small tavern table and three folding camp tables, each covered with floor- 
length green baize and supplied with necessary writing materials, such as an 
inkstand, quill pens, sand shaker, and writing paper. The tables are ar- 
ranged informally to take advantage of the light from the two windows. The 
aides and adjutants are seated on Windsor side chairs and camp stools; 
against the east and north walls are stacked the rest of the camp stools 
General Washington ordered from Plunket Fleeson in 1776 for headquarters 
use. 

On Hamilton's desk there is a reference book, the latest acts of Congress. 
Secretary Harrison's table has a paper folder, candlestick, and stick of seal- 
ing wax, as well as a book into which his assistant copies outgoing letters. 
Laurens and Tilghman work at a third table and on the tavern table are laid 
out the orders of the day for the adjutants to copy. Additional candlesticks 
for use on dark days or for night work sit on the mantel. An unframed map 
of the former British colonies is tacked up on the east wall, near to a tall case 
clock. Against the west wall are a chest and a trunk for document storage. 
Dishes, eating utensils, table linens, and extra candlesticks are out of sight 
in the built-in cupboards on the south wall. 



102 



Barrier and Label 

The barrier will be a simple glass one with two illustrations showing how the 
room was used. One of the illustrations could depict Washington and his 
staff at dinner. Washington usually sat at the center of the table rather than 
at one of the ends. There are several period references to this seating arran- 
gement in the files at Mount Vernon. The other illustration could depict the 
room as it would have looked when used as the aides' work room. 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



1 EIGHT-DAY TALL CASE CLOCK, 
walnut case, Pennsylvania, c. 1740-75 
Thomas Potts 1762 inventory and Val- 
ley Forge Orderly Book, April 1, 1778: 
"the Adjutant General is to regulate 
his watch by the Clock at Head 
Quarters. " 

2-4 TABLES (3), folding, walnut, each 3- 
1/2' square 

Washington expense accounts, May 4, 
1776: Washington orders 3 walnut 
camp tables and 18 camp stools from 
Plunket Fleeson of Philadelphia. It is 
believed that these tables fitted 
together to form one large dining table 
in Washington's dining marquee. 

5 SMALL, STRETCHER-BASE, 
"TAVERN" TABLE, Pennsylvania, 
early 18th century 

A common type of table of the period 

6 WINDSOR CHAIRS (5), Pennsyl- 
vania, c.1750-75 

This type of chair was readily 
available and commonly used in of- 
fices of the period. 

7 CAMP STOOLS (18), walnut, c.1776, 
with girth, tacks, and bottoming, 
upholstered with moreen and 
decorated with brass nails 
Washington expense account, May 4, 
1776 



East wall VAFO 75.116 



East and 
west sides 
at right 
angle to 
walls 



West side, 

between 

windows 



Two at one 
of the camp 
tables, one 
each at the 
other tables 

Two or 
three set 
up at tav- 
ern table, 
the rest 
folded and 
stacked 
against 
north and 
east walls 



Reproduce (identical to 
tables made for 
Washington's Head- 
quarters at Morristown 
National Historical 
Park); place informally 
to get maximum light 
and warmth 



Acquire period or 
reproduction table 



Acquire period or 
reproduction chairs 



Reproduce original, Na- 
tional Museum of His- 
tory, Smithsonian 
Institution 



103 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



8-11 FIREBACK, ANDIRONS, SHOVEL, 
and TONGS, iron and brass, c.1760- 
75 
Thomas Potts' 1762 inventory 



In fireplace 



Use VAFO 75.118 
(Colebrookdale Furnace 
fireback) and VAFO 
75.120, 75.141, and 
75.142 



12-13 CHEST and TRUNK, flat-topped, 


Northwest 


Acquire period pieces or 


mid-1 8th century 


corner 


reproduce 


Needed for storage of official docu- 






ments 






14-17 TABLE COVERS (4), green baize, 


On each of 


Acquire reproduction 


floor-length 


the tables 


fabric 


Period practice 






18-20 CANDLESTICKS (3 pairs), brass, 


One pair on 


Acquire period candle- 


varying sizes, mid-18th century 


mantel; 


sticks 


Washington expense accounts, May 


store 




30, 1776, and September 5, 1777; in- 


others in 




ventory of Thomas Potts, 1762 


cupboard, 
but on dark 
days place 
a single 
candlestick 
on each 
table 




21 CANDLES (12), tallow, dipped 


In candle- 


Acquire; those on the 


Washington expense accounts, April 


sticks 


tables should show 


14 and 24, 1776 




some use 


22 CANDLE SNUFFER, brass or tin, 


On mantel 


Acquire period snuffer 


mid- 18th century 






Common usage 






23-25 INKSTANDS (3), pewter, mid-18th 


On 


Acquire reproductions 


century 


Hamilton's, 


similar to those in the 


Common usage 


Harrison's, 


Assembly Room, Inde- 




and 


pendence Hall 




Lauren's/ 






Tilghman's 






tables 




26-27 INKSTANDS (2), field, leather or 


On tavern 


Acquire period ex- 


soap stone 


table used 


amples or reproductions 


Ordered by Washington in quantity 


by Gibbs 




for field use (furnishing plan, 


and by ad- 




Washington's Headquarters, Morris- 


jutants 




town NHP, p. 83) 


copying or- 
ders of the 
day 




28-32 SANDERS (5), metal or leather 


One at 


Acquire modern quills 


Common usage 


each place 





104 



Object 






Documentation 


Location 


Recommendation 


33 QUILL PENS (5) 


One at 


Acquire modern quills 


Common usage 


each place 




34-35 SEALING WAX AND WAFERS, red 


On 


Acquire a single stick of 


Common usage; Washington expense 


Secretary 


red sealing wax and a 


accounts, December 7, 1775 


Harrison's 
table 


package of red wafers 


36 WRITING PAPER, quarto or letter 


A few un- 


Acquire reproduction 


size, off-white, laid 


used or 


paper; copy contem- 


Common usage; Washington expense 


partly used 


porary letters and or- 


accounts, December 7, 1775 


sheets at 


ders using quill pen and 




each sta- 


brown ink 




tion; the 






rest in a 






stack on 






Harrison's 






table 




37 PAPER FOLDER, ivory 


On 


Acquire period folder 


Common usage 


Harrison's 
table 




38 LETTER BOOK 


On 


Reproduce 


For entering copies of outgoing letters 


Harrison's 
table 




39 ACCOUNT BOOK 


On tavern 


Reproduce from original 


For keeping General Washington's ac- 


table 


in Washington Papers 


counts 






40 BOOK: ACTS OF CONGRESS 


On Lt. Col. 


Acquire or reproduce an 


For reference in drafting a com- 


Hamilton's 


original copy of acts of 


munication to the Congress 


table 


the Continental Con- 
gress passed in 1777 


41 MAP OF BRITISH NORTH 


Tacked up 


Reproduce a map of the 


AMERICA, c. 1770-77, unframed 


on east wall 


period 


For general office reference 






42 SPITTING BOX, wood, filled with 


Beside 


Acquire reproduction of 


sand 


fireplace 


spitting box at Inde- 



Common usage 



pendence NHP 



Dining Room (Option 2) 

From the time of his arrival in November 1777 until the following March, 
General Washington took dinner every day in this room, along with his imme- 
diate headquarters staff and other invited officers. Served between two and 
three o'clock, dinner provided the commander-in-chief a valuable opportunity 
to sit down each day with his officers and discuss problems and plans. The 
combination meal and staff meeting often lasted two or three hours. 



105 



The three folding camp tables and 18 folding camp stools Washington or- 
dered from Plunket Fleeson in 1776 could be set up in his dining marquee 
without difficulty but in the house at Valley Forge the dining room could ac- 
commodate comfortably only two of the tables and up to about 10 diners. The 
problem was alleviated by building a separate cabin for dining which was in 
use by early March of 1778. 

Since the midday meal was an important event in the daily administration of 
the encampment, it would be as appropriate to show the room's dining func- 
tion as to show its other function as the aides' work room or office. To allow 
for this possibility, perhaps on special occasions, such as Washington's 
birthday, celebrated here on February 22, 1778, the following alternative 
plan is provided. 

A February dinner, such as that prepared for Washington's birthday, of cab- 
bages, potatoes, onions, fowls, partridges, and veal was not untypical of the 
Valley Forge meals. Veal seems to have been a regular winter menu item 
with additions such as turkey and other fowls, fish, and occasionally wild 
game such as rabbits, pigeons, partridge, and wild goose (see Appendix VIII). 
Although Washington ate considerably better than his soldiers, these meals 
lacked the variety he would have been accustomed to in peacetime. 

A dinner serving 18 people in peacetime might include as many as 21 dif- 
ferent dishes served for each of two courses. Wine, fruit, and nuts followed a 
separate dessert course after the servants cleared the table. There is an ac- 
count of a meal at Mount Vernon on February 4, 1799, where, after the 
tablecloth was removed, port, madeira, two kinds of nuts, apples, and raisins 
were served. 

At headquarters, the variety of available foodstuffs was very limited for the 
period. At most, probably less than ten different dishes (including sauces) 
were offered at each meal. Whether the second course was eliminated is not 
known. Dinner might have been served as two courses with four or five 
dishes each. The large number of knives and forks ordered by Washington 
and listed in the expense accounts indicates that he was prepared to serve 
the normal two-course meal with additional knives and forks for the second 
course. The final fruit and wine course appears to have been maintained. At 
times they may have only had wine. Apples seem to have been readily avail- 
able. There is only one reference to an almond purchase (half of a bushel) in 
1777. Almonds were a favorite ingredient in dessert dishes, and they may 
have been reserved for cooking. 

A February 1778 meal at Valley Forge Headquarters might have included 
fowls (chickens), a veal dish, potatoes, cabbage, turnips, an apple dish, with 
sauces and occasionally turkey, goose, rabbit, or partridge. Many of the 
recipes are included in this report in the chapter on the kitchen because they 



106 






provide an idea of the work needed to prepare these dinners. A possible 
menu based upon food purchases made in February and March has been 
selected from Hannah Glasse's The Art of Cookery (London, 1747), one of 
Mrs. Washington's cookbooks. The table will be set as if this dinner were 
taking place. 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



1 EIGHT-DAY TALL CASE CLOCK, 
walnut case, Pennsylvania, c. 1740-75 
Thomas Potts 1762 inventory and Val- 
ley Forge Orderly Book, April 1, 1778: 
"the Adjutant General is to regulate 
his watch by the Clock at Head 
Quarters." 

2 DINING TABLE, rectangular, wal- 
nut, in two parts, collapsible, c.1776, 
approximately 3-1/2' x 7' overall 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, May 4, 1776. 
Washington ordered three walnut 
camp tables along with 18 camp 
stools from Plunket Fleeson of 
Philadelphia. It is likely that the 
table fit together to form one large 
dining table, but in this room only 
two could be accommodated. 



East wall 



VAFO 75.116 



Center of 
room 



Reproduce (similar to 
tables reproduced for 
the Morristown Head- 
quarters). Place extra 
table against east wall, 
covered with green baize 



3 18 CAMP STOOLS, walnut with 
girth, tacks and bottoming, 
upholstered with moreen, and 
decorated with brass nails 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, May 4, 1776 

4-5 TABLECLOTH, white damask, and 
10 NAPKINS 

Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, July 5, 1775, and 
April 1776 



6 KNIFE BOXES, mahogany, c.1776 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, April 13, 1776 

7 TEA WAITER (tray), large, 
mahogany, c.1776 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, April 13, 1776 



Around 


Reproduce original at 


table (10); 


the Smithsonian Institu 


others 


tion 


against 




east wall 




On table; 


Reproduce (check 


fold nap- 


VAFO 76.14.15 for 


kins four 


dimensions) 


square and 




lay on each 




plate 





In closet 



In closet 



Reproduce 



VAFO 75.231 



107 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



8-10 6 PINT DECANTERS, 2 QUART 
DECANTERS, and 10 WINE GLAS- 
SES 

Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, March 11, 1776, 
and references to wines April 28, 
1778, July 31, 1775, and October 2 
and 11, 1775 

11-13 ANDIRONS, SHOVEL, and TONGS, 
brass or brass and iron, c. 1760-75, 
and FIREBACK 
Thomas Potts 1762 inventory; 
fireback is from the Colebrookdale 
Furnace 

14-16 Three pairs of CANDLESTICKS, 
brass, varying sizes, c. 1750-1775 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, May 30, 1776, 
September 5, 1777, also Thomas Potts 
1762 inventory 

17 10 KNrVES and FORKS, ivory hand- 
led or black handled with silver gilt 
or silver 

Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, March 25, and 
April 13, 1776 

18 Set of 10 PLATES, earthenware, "yel- 
low" probably creamware or "burnt" 
china plates, c.1776 

Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, June 5, 1775, 
and May 1776 

19 Eight TABLESPOONS, silver, c.1776 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, July 17, 1775, 
and June 25, 1780 (a reference to trad- 
ing in old silver for new tablespoons) 



20-21 Two pairs cut glass OIL and 
VINEGAR CRUETS, c.1776 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, May 13, 1776 



Decanters 
near tray, 
wine glas- 
ses on table 
or in closet 



Fireplace 



In closet; 
candles 
were not 
usually put 
out until 
dark 

On table 



At each 
place 



At each 
corner, 
with the 
back side 
up and 
placed in 
pairs, bowl 
to handle 

At either 
end of table 



Acquire 



VAFO 75.120, 75.141, 
75.142, and fireback, 
75.118 



Acquire 



Acquire/reproduce 



Acquire 



Reproduce 



Acquire 



108 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



22-26 Four pairs cut glass SALT DISHES 
and eight small, silver SALT 
SPOONS 

Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, December 19, 

1775, January 23, 1776, March 11, 

1776, and May 13, 1776 



27-39 SERVING DISHES, creamware 
and/or pewter, to include: 1 large 
platter, 2 medium size platters, 2 
small platters, 2 round dishes (for 
puddings and/or pies), 2 sauceboats 
and plates, 4 small plates (for butter) 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, July 5, 1775; 
December 19, 1775; January 1776; 
April 12, 25, and 29, 1776; and May 
4, 1776 



Symmetri- 
cally placed 
down the 
center of 
the table, 
spoons to 
be placed 
across tops 
of salt 
dishes 

Arranged 
symmetri- 
cally, down 
the center 
of the table 
with the 
large plat- 
ter in the 
middle and 
the two 
medium 
platters at 
either end 



Acquire 



Acquire 



Optional 



31 SOUP TUREEN, creamware, c.1776 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, April 1776. Soup 
and fish were usually served during 
the first course of an 18th century 
meal. 



32 10 TABLESPOONS, silver, c.1776 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, July 17, 1775, 
and June 25, 1780. Tablespoons were 
used for soup. 



At one end 
of table, in 
place of one 
of the plat- 
ters, which 
could be 
put in the 
closet 

To the 
right of the 
knife, back 
side up 



Acquire 



Acquire/reproduce 



109 



KITCHEN 

The kitchen area at headquarters was as crowded and as busy as the main 
building. All of Washington's Family's food was prepared in this room. If 
laundry was not done in the kitchen, it was done in the dog trot area. Water 
for the laundry was boiled either over the kitchen fire or nearby outside in 
good weather. The kitchen also served as the servants' dining room and 
sleeping area. 

Meals for 20-30 people, including servants, were cooked over the fireplace. 
By using several different cooking methods — boiling, baking, and roasting — a 
large quantity of food could be cooked at the same time. This practice al- 
lowed the 18th century cook to use all of the available cooking space and 
utensils. When more guests came for dinner, a greater variety of food was of- 
fered. Because 18th century food was most commonly boiled, several pots 
hung over the fire at once. The food that was not boiled was prepared over 
small clusters of glowing coals, placed along the front area of the fireplace. 
The main fire was mainly used to feed the smaller cooking fires. In this 
fashion Washington's cook, Isaac, could regulate the heat required. 

Shelves, hooks, and cupboards, arranged as needed, provided storage areas 
for most 18th century kitchens. Cooking utensils hung on hooks and were 
placed on shelves usually located randomly around the room. Cupboards 
with locking doors contained more valuable items such as sugar and spices, 
salt, and tablewares, usually pewter and earthenware. Sometimes these 
items were kept in the main house, however, the kitchen would have been a 
more practical location for them at headquarters. 

Fowls (chickens), veal, potatoes, cabbages, apples, and turnips most frequent- 
ly appear in February and March purchases. Eggs, onions, and butter also 
appear, but these foodstuffs would most often have been used as ingredients 
rather than for main courses. A small quantity of wild turkey occasionally 
shows up in the purchases. 

Mrs. Washington owned two cookbooks, one a compilation of 16th and 17th 
century recipes acquired at the time of her first marriage and the other a 
1765 edition of The Art of Cookery, Made Plain and Easy, by Hannah Glasse 
(possibly a pseudonym for Dr. John Hill). This book was extremely popular 
and went through many editions following its initial publication in 1747. 



In Virginia at this time a small kitchen measured 12' x 12' and the average kitchen 16' 
x 24'. See Jane Carson's Colonial Virginia Cookery (Charlottesville: The University 
Press of Virginia, 1968). 



110 



A few of Mrs. Glasse's recommendations are described here to provide an 
idea of the time involved in cooking and the food preparation that must have 
occurred in the Valley Forge Headquarters kitchen. 

Hannah Glasse recommended for boiling fowls 15 minutes for little ones, 20- 
30 minutes for a large one, and 60-90 minutes for a turkey or goose. Her 
recommended sauce for a boiled goose was either onions or cabbage first 
boiled, then "stew'd" in butter for 5 minutes. 

Roasting took place on a spit, and Mrs. Glasse recommended basting with 
butter and dredging with flour. She suggested a variety of sauces to accom- 
pany the different birds: gravy and applesauce for goose; bread or onion 
sauce for turkey; bread or egg sauce for chickens; bread for partridges. Judg- 
ing by the quantities purchased (Appendix VIII), veal must have been served 
at almost every meal at Valley Forge and was probably prepared in all the 
different ways recommended by Mrs. Glasse. She included recipes for veal 
blanquets (first roasted, then cut up and served with a sauce of butter, . 
onions, sweet herbs, cream, eggs, and spices), veal collops (fried and covered 
with a sauce), veal rolls, and veal pie. Meat pies were a favorite 18th century 
dinner dish. Mrs. Glasse's instructions for a veal pie read: 

Take a Breast of Veal, cut it into pieces, season it with Pep- 
per and Salt, lay it all into your crust, boil six or eight Eggs 
hard, take only the Yolks, put them into the Pye here and 
there, fill your Dish almost full of water, put on the lid, and 
bake it well. 

Pudding was another favorite 18th century dish found on most dinner 
menus. The large quantity of apples purchased for headquarters suggests 
there were probably many apple puddings and pies. 

Potatoes were frequently found on the menu at Valley Forge. Mrs. Glasse 
recommended boiling them first, then peeling and slicing them, and either 
serving them with melted butter poured on or first frying them in butter or 
beef drippings. 

Other vegetables were more scarce at Valley Forge, but cabbage and turnips 
appear in the purchases fairly frequently. Mrs. Glasse recommended boiling 
turnips, then mashing them with butter and salt. Dicing them (after boiling) 
and frying them in butter was another alternative. For cabbage Mrs. Glasse 



4 Hannah Glasse, The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy (London, 1747), p. 134. 



Ill 



recommended boiling, then chopping it up and frying it for 5 or 6 minutes 
with butter. 

It is more difficult to determine what sort of sweet dishes were served at Val- 
ley Forge Headquarters, if any. Sugar, eggs, milk, spices and apples were 
available. These ingredients suggest such items as custards, curds, sugar 
wafers (cookies) or Shrewsbury cakes (cookies), apple pies and tarts and pud- 
dings. 



Barriers and Labels 

The barrier in the kitchen area will extend from the fireplace wall to the op- 
posite wall and will be glass, approximately 8 feet high. Behind the barrier 
an interior wayside should depict the kitchen as it might have looked with 
the cook working with his assistants. 

Another interior wayside in the dogtrot area will depict the large number of 
household servants and briefly describe the duties of each. This wayside will 
be a removable, folding screen similar to the one on the second floor. 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



1 TABLE, Pennsylvania, walnut or 
pine, 1740-75 

Table surfaces for food preparation 
appear in Chester County Inventories 
1684-1850 and were standard equip- 
ment in 18th century kitchens. 5 The 
Thomas Potts inventory groups most 
of the Potts kitchen items under the 
category "Kitchen furniture"; a table 
was likely part of his furniture. 



Center of 
room, one 
end against 
barrier 



VAFO 75.214. 



Margaret B. Schiffer, Chester County, Pennsylvania Inventories 1684-1850 (Exton, 
Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing, Ltd., 1974). 



112 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



2 DRESSER or CUPBOARD with glass 
doors, walnut, Pennsylvania, 1750-75 
Storage cupboards for more valuable 
items were found frequently in 18th 
century kitchens. Chester County In- 
ventories 1684-1850 and Colonial Vir- 
ginia Cookery provide examples. 
Cupboards were likely part of Thomas 
Potts' "kitchen furniture. " 

3 BENCH, pine, Pennsylvania, 1750-75 
Several benches seated the many ser- 
vants who ate in this room. 

4-6 CHAIRS, three, ladder back, rush 
seats, Pennsylvania, 1725-50 
The Thomas Potts 1762 inventory 
lists nine old chairs. All available 
seats would have been used while 
Washington's Family occupied the 
buildings. 

7-9 ANDIRONS, iron with hooks on the 
uprights for a spit, 1740-75, and 2 
SPITS 

Thomas Potts 1762 inventory; several 
spits would have been needed to roast 
the game listed in the headquarters 
food purchases. 

10 SHOVEL and TONGS, iron, 1740-75 
Thomas Potts 1762 inventory and 
Washington's expense accounts 

11-14 CHIMNEY BAR or LUG POLE and 
three POT HOOKS, iron, 1725-75 
These are essential 18th century cook- 
ing devices used in the fireplace. 

15-17 LARGE POTS, three, varying sizes, 
iron with bail handles and short feet, 
1725-75 

Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, March 11, 1776. 



South wall VAFO 76.82 



Under 
table or 
against wall 

Against 
walls or at 
table 



Acquire or reproduce; 
room for only one bench 
is available 

Reproduce 



Fireplace Park collections 



Fireplace Acquire 



Fireplace Use chimney bar in 

park collections; acquire 
three pot hangers. 



Fireplace VAFO 75.179 and 

area 75.181; acquire one 



Jane Carson, Colonial Virginia Cookery (Charlottesville, Virginia: The University 
Press of Virginia for Colonial Williamsburg, 1968). 



113 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



18-21 DRIPPING PANS, two, iron or tin, 
1725-75, and BASTING SPOONS, 
two, iron, brass or copper 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, May 30, 1776, 
and August 8, 1775, list the purchase 
of a dripping pan. A basting spoon 
would have been used with the drip- 
ping pan when roasting. 

22-23 LARGE FRYING PANS, two, footed, 
long handled, shallow, iron, 1725-75 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, March 11, 1776 

24-28 SKILLETS or SAUCEPANS, five, in 
varying sizes, brass, copper, or bell 
metal, with deep bodies and long 
handles 

Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, March 11, 1776. 
These pans were used for stewing and 
making the sauces that accompanied 
most 18th century meals. 

29-30 LARGE TEA KETTLE, cast iron, 
c.1776, and TRIVET, iron or brass 
Washington expense account, 
Washington Papers, March 11, 1776; 
August 7, 1776; and April 18, 1778 

31 COFFEEPOT, tin, c.1776 
Washington expense account, 
Washington Papers, February 1776 

32 GRIDIRON, iron, parallel bars with 
long handle, c.1775 

Gridirons were necessary for broiling. 
For example, Isaac Potts' 1803 inven- 
tory lists one. 

33-34 BROOM and BUCKET BRUSH, 

wood and straw, c.1775 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, January 1778 
and February 1778. Broom and 
brush purchases appear throughout 
the expense accounts. 

35-36 PAILS, two, wood, c.1775 

Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, May 30, 1776 



Beneath 
the spit be- 
tween an- 
dirons 



Fireplace 
area 



Table top, 
mantel, or 
cupboard 



Acquire 



Park collections 



Fireplace Acquire 



Fireplace Acquire trivet; use 

VAFO 75. 179, cast iron 
kettle 



Acquire 



Fireplace Acquire 



Corner of Reproduce 

room 



Near broom Reproduce 



114 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



37-38 BASKETS, two, woven splints, rush 
or straw, c.1775 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, May 30, 1776, 
and March 15, 1778 

39 COLANDER, tin, pewter, brass, or 
earthenware, c.1775 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, May 30, 1776 

40-41 DREDGING BOX and GRATER, tin, 
c.1775 

Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, May 30, 1776 

42-43 MORTAR AND PESTLE, two, one 
brass, one wood and iron, c.1775 
Small mortars and pestles were used 
for grinding spices and large ones of 
wood and iron for grinding corn to 
make cornmeal. Although not 
numerous, spice purchases appear in 
the Washington expense accounts. 
Washington's favorite breakfast was 
cornmeal cakes. 

44 TOASTER, iron, footed, long handle, 
c.1775 

These implements toasted bread over 
an open fire in the 18th century. 

45 DOUGH TROUGH, Pennsylvania, 
wood, c.1775 

Dough troughs appear frequently in 
18th century inventories from this 
area, and one is listed in Isaac Potts' 
inventory. It is very likely that the 
Hewes kitchen contained one. 



One on 
table, one 
on floor 



Table or 
cupboard 



Table, 
mantle, or 
window sill 



Table and 
mantel or 
cupboard 



Park collections 
(reproductions) 



Acquire 



Acquire 



Acquire wood and iron 
mortar and pestle; use 
VAFO 75.157, brass one. 



Fireplace VAFO 75.163 



Window sill Reproduce 
or in cup- 
board 



46-47 ROLLING PIN, wood, and SIFTER, 
wood with mesh of hair, silk or lawn, 
c.1775 

These items were necessary for 
baking; Washington's expense ac- 
counts list other baking equipment 
purchases, October 1775, February 
1776, and September 1777. 

48-49 IRON DUTCH OVEN and IRON 
GRIDDLE, c.1775 
Both items were used for fireplace 
baking and appear frequently in 18th 
century inventories from this area; see 
Thomas Potts 1785 inventory. 



Table or 
cupboard 



Acquire or reproduce 



Fireplace Acquire 



115 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



Table, man- 
tel, and 
hanging 
from nails 
on the wall 



50 PEEL, wood, c. 1775 Leaning 

Peels were a necessary 18th century against 

kitchen baking utensil. They were wall or 

used to place the foods to be baked in hanging 

the hot oven. from nail 

51-54 BAKING PANS, tin, c. 1775 to include Cupboard 
three cake pans or baking dishes, one or table 
dozen patty pans, and a biscuit pan 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, February 1776; 
September 2, 1777; and October 1775 

55-63 Two LARGE SPOONS, one TIN DIP- 
PER, two LADLES, one CARVING 
KNIFE, one 2-PRONGED FORK, and 
one STRAINER 
The first four items are listed in 
Washington's expense accounts (May 
30, 1776, February 1776, and August 
8, 1775); the last four are recom- 
mended as 18th century kitchen neces- 
sities. 

64-66 PUDDING PANS or MOLDS, three, 
tin or copper, c.1775 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, September 2, 
1777 

67-68 BUTTER FIRKIN, wood, or small 

iron, BUTTER TUB, c.1775, and one 
BUTTER CROCK, c.1775 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, May 30, 1776; 
April 3, 1777; March 19, 1778; and 
November 21, 1777 

69 PEPPER BOX, tin, c.1775 Table or 

Washington expense accounts, mantel 

Washington Papers, August 8, 1775 

70-105 An assortment of c.1775 earthenware Table 

or stoneware and/or pewter to in- and/or cup- 

elude: 2 LARGE BOWLS, 2 BASINS, board 
4 PLATTERS, 1 MILK JUG, 1 
PITCHER, 12 MUGS (brown), 12 
PLATES, and 2 WATER GUGLETS 
Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, May 30, 1776; 
April 1776; March 11, 1776; October 
24, 1776; and April 3, 1777 



Cupboard 
and/or table 



Table or 
window sill 



Acquire 



Acquire 



Acquire spoons, tin dip- 
per, knife, and fork. 
Until 18th century re- 
placements are located, 
useVAFO 76.3.16 and 
76.3.14, ladles; 76.3. le, 
strainer 



Acquire 



Acquire 



Acquire 



VAFO 75.135, pewter 
mug; acquire or 
reproduce remaining 
items 



116 



Object 
Documentation 



Location Recommendation 



106- CANISTERS for tea and sugar, tin, 

107 japanned, c. 1775 

Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, June 5, 1778, 
and May 30, 1776 

108- BOTTLES, assorted, including one 
114 gallon bottle and two half -gallon bot- 
tles, two bottles of mustard, and two 
of lime juice 

Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, May 3, 1776; 
May 8, 1777; February 10, 1777. 



Cupboard Acquire 



Cupboard Acquire or reproduce. 
Not all bottles that ap- 
pear in the expense ac- 
counts are 

recommended for dis- 
play in the kitchen. It 
is assumed some would 
have been stored else- 
where. 



115- CANDLESTICKS, two, iron or tin 
116 Washington expense accounts, 
Washington Papers, September 5, 
1777; August 8, 1775; and May 30, 
1776 



Mantel Acquire one; VAFO 

75.182, a wrought iron 
betty lamp, could be 
used instead of one of 
the candlesticks. 



117 FOOT WARMER, tin and wood, 
c.1775 

Foot warmers were usually stored in 
the kitchen when not in use. This 
item has been recommended because 
it is an appropriate 18th century 
kitchen furnishing and because the 
VAFO collection contains one. 



Kitchen 
floor near 
fireplace 



Park collection 



118- Laundry items to include: 2 LARGE 

125 CEDAR TUBS and BENCH or 
STAND, 2 FLAT IRONS, 2 LARGE 
BASKETS, LINEN SHEETS, 
LAUNDRY LINE, 2 WOODEN 
POLES, FIRKIN OF SOAP 
Washington expense accounts refers to 
paying for washing and purchases of 
tubs (February 20, 1778, May 30, 
1776, and April 23, 1776). 

126 STILLIARDS, c.1775 

Thomas Potts 1762 inventory. Stil- 
liards were commonly found in 18th 
century kitchens in the Valley Forge 
area. 



Corner of 


Acquire and/or 


room, near 


reproduce 


barrier or 




under 




table, 




laundry 




line outside 




in good 




weather 




Table or 


Acquire 


cupboard 





117 



WORKING DRAWINGS 



119 




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141 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



PRIMARY SOURCES 

Berks County Courthouse. Wills and Inventories; Land Deeds. Reading, Pen- 
nsylvania. 

Boudinot, Elias. Journal or Historical Recollections of American Events During 
the Revolutionary War. Philadelphia: Frederick Bourquin, 1894. 
Reprint. New York: The New York Times & Arno Press, 1968. 

The Bradford Club. The Army Correspondence of Colonel John Laurens in the 
Years 1777-1778. New York: The Bradford Club, 1867. Reprint. New 
York: The New York Times & Arno Press, 1969. 

Bucks County Historical Society. Mercer Museum. Doylestown, Pennsylvania. 

Chastellux, Marquis de. Travels in North America, Howard C. Rich, Jr., ed. 
Vol. 2. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 
1963. 

Chester County Courthouse. Wills and Inventories; Land Deeds. West Chester, 
Pennsylvania. 

Chester County Historical Society. Wills and Inventories; Land Deeds. West 
Chester, Pennsylvania. 

Delaware County Courthouse. Wills and Inventories; Land Deeds. Media, 
Pennsylvania. 

Ewing, Thomas. The Military Journal of George Ewing 1754-1824. New York: 
privately printed, 1928. 

Fitzpatrick, John C, ed. The Last Will and Testament of George Washington 
and Schedule of His Property. Alexandria, Virginia: The Mount Vernon 
Ladies' Association of the Union, 1939, 1982. 

. The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 

1745-1799, vols. 1, 10, and 11. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing 
Office, 1931-1934. 



143 



. Writings of Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745-1799, 

39 vols. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1938. 

Genealogical Publishing Company. Record of Indentures of Individuals Bound 
Out as Apprentices, Servants, Etc. in Philadelphia, Pa., by Mayor John 
Gibson 1771-1772 and Mayor William Fisher, 1773. Baltimore: 
Genealogical Publishing Co., 1793. 

Glasse, Hannah. The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy. 1747; 7th ed. 
London: A. Miller, R. Tomson, et al, 1760. 

Gleason's Pictorial Drawing Room Companion. May 6, 1854. 

Historical Society of Berks County. Wills and Inventories; Land Deeds. Read- 
ing, Pennsylvania. 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Potts Papers; Elizabeth Drinker Journal. 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

James, Mrs. Thomas Potts. Memorial of Thomas Potts, Junior. Cambridge: 
privately printed, 1874. 

Kimball, Marie. The Martha Washington Cook Book. New York: Coward-Mc- 
Cann, 1940. 

Library of Congress. Washington Papers. Washington, D.C. 

Lossing, Benson J. Pictorial Field-Book of the Revolution. New York: Harper 
& Brothers, 1885. Reprint. Rutland, Vermont: C.E. Tuttle, 1972. 

Lycoming County Historical Society and Museum. Wills and Inventories; Land 
Deeds. Williamsport, Pennsylvania. 

Massachusetts Historical Society. Warren-Adams Papers. Boston, Mass- 
achusetts. 

Memoirs of Lieut. Col. Tench Tilghman. Albany: J. Munsell, 1876. Reprint. 
New York: The New York Times & Arno Press, 1971. 

Montgomery County Courthouse. Wills and Inventories; Land Deeds. Norris- 
town, Pennsylvania. 

Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union. Inventory of Articles; 
photograph files; curatorial files. Mount Vernon, Virginia. 

National Archives. William Moore Claim, Record Group 93. Washington, D.C. 

144 



Orderly Book of General George Washington: Commander in Chief of the 
American Armies Kept at Valley Forge, 18 May -11 June 1778. Boston, 
New York, & London: Lanson, Wolffe & Company, 1898. 



Peale, Charles Willson. "Diary." MS, American Philosophical Society, Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania. 

The Pennsylvania Gazette. Philadelphia, 1750-1780. 

Philadelphia County Courthouse. Wills and Inventories; Land Deeds. 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Scott, Kenneth, and Janet R. Clarks. Abstracts from the Pennsylvania Gazette, 
1748-1755. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1977. 

Swarthmore College. Quaker Collections. Swarthmore, Pennsylvania. 

U.S. Department of the Interior. Independence National Historical Park Ar- 
chives. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

U.S. Department of the Interior. Valley Forge National Historical Park files. 
Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. 

Valley Forge Historical Society. Washington Collection. Valley Forge, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Valley Forge Orderly Book of General George Weedon of the Continental Army 
under Command ofGenl George Washington, in the Campaign of 1777-8. 
New York: The New York Times & Arno Press, 1971. 

The Workwoman's Guide. London: Simpkin, Marshall, & Co., 1838. 



SECONDARY SOURCES 

Burk, W. Herbert. Valley Forge: What it is, Where it is, and What to see there. 
North Wales, Pennsylvania: Norman B. Nuss, 1932. 

Cremers, Estelle. Reading Furnace. Elverson, Pennsylvania: Reading Fur- 
nace Press, 1986. 

Flexner, James Thomas. George Washington in the American Revolution (1775- 
1783). Boston & Toronto: Little, Brown & Co., 1967 & 1968. 



145 



The Founders, Washington Committee for Historic Mount Vernon. The Mount 
Vernon Cookbook. Memphis, Tennessee: Wimmes Brothers Books, 1984. 

Freeman, Douglas Southall. George Washington: A Biography, 4 vols. New 
York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1951. 

Halsey, Ashley Jr. The American Rifleman (February 1968):23. 

Jackson, Ronald, ed., and Gary Teeples. Pennsylvania 1800 Census Index. Salt 
Lake City, Utah: Dora Press, 1972. 

Kitman, Marvin. George Washington's Expense Account. New York: Simon & 
Shuster, 1969. 

Stone, Garry Wheeler. "The Mount Joy Forge on Valley Creek" in The Scope of 
Historical Archeology. Philadelphia: Temple University Laboratory of 
Anthropology, 1984. 

Stoudt, John Joseph. Ordeal at Valley Forge. Philadelphia: University of 
Pennsylvania Press, 1963. 

Trussell, John B.B. Jr. Birthplace of an Army: A Study of the Valley Forge 
Encampment. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commis- 
sion, 1976. 

Wall, Charles Cecil. George Washington: Citizen-Soldier. Charlottesville: 
University Press of Virginia. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 

National Heritage Corporation. "Historical Research, Valley Forge State Park." 
February 20, 1974. 

Thatcher, Joseph M. and Maurice H. O'Brien. "George Washington Slept 
Here. ..But Where Did He Sleep? A Furnishing Plan for Washington's 
Headquarters State Historic Site." Newburgh, New York: New York 
State Office of Parks, Recreation, & Historic Preservation, Bureau of 
Historic Sites, Peebles Island, Waterford, New York, June 1985. 

U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service. "Historic Furnishings 
Plan, Washington's Headquarters, Valley Forge Park," by Anne Rowland 
Woodward. August 1974. 



146 



. "Furnishing Plan for the Ford Mansion, Morristown National Histori- 
cal Park," by Vera B. Craig and Ralph H. Lewis. July 1976. 

. "Valley Forge Historical Research Report," vol. 1, by Wayne K. Bodle 



and Jacqueline Thibaut. May 1980. 

. "Historic Structure Report: Washington's Headquarters, Valley 

Forge National Historical Park," by John Bruce Dodd and Cherry Dodd. 
1981. 

. "Historic Structure Report: Varnum's Quarters, Valley Forge Na- 
tional Historical Park," by John Bruce Dodd and Cherry Dodd. 1981. 

. "Historic Structure Report: The David Potts House, The Bake House, 

Valley Forge National Historical Park," by John Bruce Dodd and Cherry 
Dodd. 1981. 

. "Valley Forge Interpretive Prospectus." Harpers Ferry Center, 1982. 

. "Administrative History, Valley Forge National Historical Park, 



Pennsylvania," by Harlan D. Unrau. Denver Service Center, September 
1984. 



DECORATIVE ARTS SOURCES 

Belden, Louise Conway. The Festive Tradition: Table decoration and desserts 
in America, 1650-1900. New York: The Henry Francis du Pont Winter- 
thur Museum, by W.W. Norton & Company, 1983. 

Buhler, KathrynC. Mount Vernon Silver. Mount Vernon, Virginia: The Mount 
Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union, 1957. 

Carlo, Joyce W. Trammels, Trenchers, Tartlets. Old Saybrook, Connecticut: 
Peregrine Press, 1982. 

Carson, Jane. Colonial Virginia Cookery. Charlottesville, Virginia: The 
University Press of Virginia for Colonial Williamsburg, 1968. 

Chippendale, Thomas. The Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker's Director. London: 
The Connoisseur, 1957. 

Dolmetsch, Joan D., ed. Eighteenth-Century Prints in Colonial America: To 
Educate and Decorate. Charlottesville, Virginia: Colonial Williamsburg 
Foundation, University Press of Virginia, 1979. 



147 



Garrett, Elisabeth Donaghy. "The American Home: Part I. 'Centre and 
Circumference': The American Domestic Scene in the Age of Enlighten- 
ment." Antiques 123 (January 1983): 214-226. 

Girouard, Mark. Life in the English Country House: A Social and Architectural 
History. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1978. 

Klapthor, Margaret Brown, and Howard Alexander Morrison. George 
Washington: A figure upon the stage. Washington, D.C.: The Smith- 
sonian Institution Press, 1982. 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art. An Elegant Art. New York: Harry N. 
Abrams, Inc., 1983. 

Montgomery, Charles F. and Patricia E. Kane, eds. American Art: 1750-1800 
Towards Independence. Boston: New York Graphic Society, 1976. 

Nylander, Jane C. Fabrics for Historic Buildings. Washington, D.C.: The 
Preservation Press, 1980. 

Ormsbee, Thomas H. Field Guide to Early American Furniture. New York: 
Bonanza Books, 1951. 

Peterson, Harold L. American Interiors: From Colonial Times to the Late 
Victorians. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971. 

Quimby, Ian M.G. "American Furniture and its Makers," Winterthur Portfolio 
13(1979). Chicago & London: The Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur 
Museum, by the University of Chicago Press, 1979. 

Schiffer, Margaret B. Chester County, Pennsylvania Inventories 1684-1850. 
Exton, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing, Ltd., 1974. 

Schoelwer, Susan Prendergast. "Form, Function, and Meaning in the Use of 
Fabric Furnishings: A Philadelphia Case Study, 1700-1775." Winterthur 
Portfolio 14(Spring 1979): 25-40. 

Sellers, Charles Coleman. Portraits and Miniatures by Charles Willson Peale. 
Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1952. 

Shadwell, Wendy J. American Printmaking: The First 150 Years. Washington, 
D.C.: The Museum of Graphic Art, The Smithsonian Institution Press, 
1969. 

Sizer, Theodore. The Works of Colonel John Trumbull: Artist of the American 
Revolution, rev. ed. New Haven & London, Yale University Press, 1967. 



148 



Thornton. Peter. Authentic Decor: The Domestic Interior 1620-1920. New 
York: Viking Penguin, Inc., 1984. 

. "Room Arrangements in the Mid-Eighteenth Century," Antiques 99 (April 

1971): 556-562. 



149 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



151 



Figure 1. George Washington's hand towel 



Courtesy of the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, Mount 
Vernon, Virginia. 



152 




HI 



wwwwy 



M**yfc 



Figure 2. Martha Washington's trunk 



Courtesy of the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, Mount 
Vernon, Virginia. 



154 




I» 














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t$ff3H* 



Figure 3. Miniature of Martha Washington 



Courtesy of the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, Mount 
Vernon, Virginia. 



156 






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Figure 4. Washington's powdering bag and puff 

Courtesy of the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, Mount 
Vernon, Virginia. 



158 





/ 





Figure 5. George Washington's razor box 



Courtesy of the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, Mount 
Vernon, Virginia. 



160 



Figure 6. George Washington's razor box, shown open 

Courtesy of the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, Mount 
Vernon, Virginia. 



162 






APPENDIXES 



165 



APPENDIX I 



Genealogical charts for the Potts, Rutter, and Pyewell Families 



167 



m. Oct. 3, 1699 
Martha Keurlis 
1682-1716 



Elizabeth 

m. 

Joseph Walker 



Martha (d. 1714) 



Martha (d. 1715) 



THOMAS POTTS 
1680-1752 



John (1710-1768) 

m. 

Ruth Savage 



See attached for 



issue 



Mary 

m. 

Derrick Clever 



Thomas (1720-4/21762) 
m. Rebecca Rutter m. Deborah Pyewell 



See attached for issue _ 



m. 1718 

Magdalene Robeson 

1643-1764 



Martha (1718-1741) 

m. 

3 
Thomas Yorke 



Stephen 



Edward 



1. Owner of Colebrookdale Furnace; house of "Popodikon." 

2. Moved to Pottsgrove in 1752; Isaac Potts' father. 

3. Merchant in Philadelphia. 

4. Cousin of Thomas's wife. 



168 



JOHN POTTS (1710-1768) 



m. 



Ruth Savage 



Thomas 

m. 

Anna Nutte 



John (1738-?) 

m. 

Margaret Carmick 



Samuel 
m. 

C 

Mary Hewes"* 



David (1741-1798) 

m. 

Mary Aris 



Jonathon (1745-1786) 

m. 

Grace Richardson 



Isaac (1750-1803) 
m. m. 

Martha Bolton Sarah Evans 



Rebeccah 

m. 

Dr. Benjamin Duffield 



Ruth 

m. 

[?] Lohra 



Samuel (1736-1793) 



Martha 

m. 

Thomas Rutter 



Joseph (1742-1804) 
m. four times 



Anna 

m. 

David Potts 1 



James (1752-1803) 

m. 

Anna Stocker 



Jesse (1757-?) 

m. 
Sarah Lewis 



169 



1. Son of Thomas Potts, owner of Colebrookdale Furnace, and Martha Keurlis. 

2. Daughter of Deborah and Caleb Hewes. 

3. David Potts, son of Thomas and Rebecca Rutter Potts, was Anna Potts' 
cousin. 



170 



THOMAS POTTS 1 (1720-1762) 



m.1742 

Rebecca Rutter (d. 1752) 



m. 1752/53? 
Deborah Pyewell 2 (b. 10/10/1736) 



Sarah m. William Dewes, Jr. 



Hannah m. Benjamin 
Bartholomew 



Rachel m. John Boggs 



David (1743-1782) m. Anna Potts 



Martha m. David Potts'" 



Ruth Anna m. Edmund Key 



Hannah m. Thomas Dewes 



William 



Sarah m. Michael Hodgekess 



David 



Thomas 



Magdalen m. John Ellis" 



Thomas (b. 1764) 



Rebecca m. Peter Vore 



Sara m. Daniel Thomas 



10 



Anna 



11 



Rebecca (June 1753-58 - 

June 16, 1830) m. Samuel 

Baird 12 (? - 1820) 



William (1758-60 -?)m. 
13 
Mary Francis Potts 



171 



1. Son of Thomas Potts, owner of Colebrookdale Furnace, and Magdalene 
Robeson. 

2. Deborah's marriage to Caleb Hewes and their children are shown in the fol- 
lowing chart. 

3. Died before 1800. 

4. Anna Potts was the daughter of John Potts (son of Thomas and Martha 
Keurlis Potts); Anna and David were married on December 22, 1768; they 
purchased Pine Forge in 1768. 

5. East Nantmeal. 

6. New Hanover Township, Montgomery County. 

7. They were married before 1763; he was a tavernkeeper in Pottsgrove; 
Sarah, Hannah's sister, was married to Thomas's brother, William; Han- 
nah died before 1800. 

8. Watchmaker in Pottsgrove. 

9. Magdalen died before 1800; John Ellis was a surveyor in Pottsgrove. 

10. They were married in October 1784. 

11. Anna was unmarried in 1800. 

12. Rebecca and Samuel Baird were married in c.1782; Samuel was a surveyor. 

13. Mary Francis Potts was Jonathon Potts' daughter. 



172 










CALEB HEWES (HUGHES?) 

m. 

Deborah Pyewell Potts 
















Mary 

m. 

2 
Samuel Potts 






















[?] 3 









1. Caleb Hewes and Deborah Pyewell were married in 1766. 

2. Samuel Potts was the son of John Potts and Margaret Carmick; he later 
married Anna Potts' widow of James, daughter of William Dewes and 
Sarah Rutter. 

3. Caleb and Deborah Pywell Potts Hewes also had a son, but no official 
records have been found. 



173 



THOMAS RUTTER (d. July 3, 1734) 



m. 
Sarah 



Rebeccah (1720-1752) 

m. 

2 
Thomas Potts 



David 



Sarah 1 



m. 
Mary Catherine" 



Mary 1 



Thomas (1731-1795) 

m. 

4 
Martha Potts 



1. Thomas Rutter marrried Mary Catherine on October 10, 1728; Mary 
Catherine's later marriage to William Pyewell is shown in the next chart. 

2. Rebeccah was baptized on November 17, 1734, age 10; Thomas and 
Rebeccah's children are shown on a preceding chart. 

3. Sarah was baptized in November 1734, age 10. 

4. William Pyewell was Thomas's guardian; Martha and Thomas were mar- 
ried on February 20, 1759. 

5. Mary was baptized on December 2, 1733, age 2 weeks. 



174 



WILLIAM C. PYEWELL (? - March 24, 1769) 
m. m. 

Deborah Mary Catherine 



John (Oct. 8, 
1726-1726) 



Elizabeth (June 9, 
1730-1731?-?) 



Deborah (b. Oct. 10, 1736) 



John(1739-?) 



Elizabeth (1743-1743) 



Richard (b. Jan. 22, 1745) 



William (1739-1739) 



Mary (1740-1741) 



Rebecca [?] 



175 



APPENDIX II 



Thomas Potts' Inventory, 1762, Potts Papers, Historical Society of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia. 



177 






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180 



APPENDIX III 



List of Washington Collection, Valley Forge Historical Society, Valley Forge, 
Pennsylvania. 



WASHINGTON COLLECTION 

1. D— Note to Mr. Lockwood from G.W., 1783 

2. LS— G.W. to de Chastellux (fragment), 1799 

3. ALS— Business letter, Geo. W.P. Custis, Mt. Vernon, 12/21/1817 

4. ALS— Bushrod Washington, re law books, Mt. Vernon, 12/12/1822 

5. ALS— Lafayette to Nelly Custis, Washington, 1/12/1825 

6. ALS— re renewal of note, Geo. W.P. Custis, Va., 6/16/1828 

7. LS — 3 letters Eleanor Parke Davis (g.d. Martha Washington) to Mrs. J. 
Washington and Mary L. Custis, 1839 & 1857 

8. ALS— George W.P. Custis, 1844 & 1853 

9. I^Mrs. G. W.P. Custis to Richard Smith of U.S. Bank, n.d. 

10. Deed — John T.A. Washington & Samuel Washington 

1 1 . Needlecase of Martha Washington 

12. Lock of G. Washington hair 

13. Fragment of Washington's tent 

14. Punched paper embroidery by Nellie Custis Lewis, 1848, wool chenille 
yarns 

15. Cake dish, white "From Cliveden, used when Washington was guest there" 
(with note) 

16. George Washington's sleeping tent of the American Revolution, and 
portmanteau 

17. China used for Washington's second inaugural banquet, 11 pieces 

18. Brick from "Wakefield," birthplace of George Washington 

19. Stirrup of George Washington 

20. Auger used at Mt. Vernon 



181 



21. Farrier's tool from Mt. Vernon; Souvenir of wood grown at Mt. Vernon 

22. Mortar and pestle owned and used by General Washington at Valley Forge 

23. Mountain Road lottery ticket signed by George Washington 

24. Mahogany bellows used at Mt. Vernon 

25. Escutcheon from Washington's bureau at Mt. Vernon 

26. Razor and case owned and used by General Washington during War of the 
Revolution 

27. 3 surveyor's pins used by George Washington 

28. Washington's bleeding knife 

29. Ivory salve jar from Washington's toilet case 

30. Shaving mirror, belonged to George Washington(?) 

31. 2 Sheffield cake baskets, wedding gift to Sarah Brown from Martha 
Washington 

32. Sheffield wine coaster, belonged to George Washington(?) 

33. 2 Bohemian glass decanters and wine glass, used in entertaining George 
Washington at Valley Forge(?) 

34. Etched crystal tumbler, one of a set given by Lafayette to Washington 

35. Martha Washington's yarn winding swift 

36. Thimble and case owned and used by Nellie Custis 

37. Chinese export china believed to have been used by Washington at Mount 
Vernon, blue and gold with vase and flowers in center, 6 pieces 

38. Tatting shuttle of Martha Washington 

39. Patch box of Martha Washington 

40. Mahogany box owned by Martha Washington 

41. Nanking platter and cup from Martha Washington's collection at Mount 
Vernon 

42. Silver cup presented by Washington to Eleanor Parke Custis upon her mar- 
riage to his nephew 

43. Silver cup engraved "George Washington 1799" 

44. Decanter and wine glass given by George Washington to Col. Wm. Augus- 
tine Washington 

45. Table knife owned by the mother of General Washington 
47. Knife and fork of George Washington 



182 



49. Brass handle from Washington's chamber door, 190 High St., Phila. 

50. 9 metal buttons worn by representatives to George Washington's inaugural 

51. Formal invitation used by the Washingtons for official presidential enter- 
taining 

52. Ivory box containing button from dress coat of President Washington 

53. Telescope presented by the Comte de Grasse to George Washington (with 
original box) 

54. Orrery of George Washington 

55. Silver cup engraved "George Washington to W A W 1778" (nephew of 
George Washington) 

56. Silver shoe buckles of George Washington, ca. 1770 (1870 reproduction?) 

57. Silver mug of Martha Washington made by Joseph Lownes of Phila., ca. 
1790 

58. Silver shoe buckles acquired at Lanier Washington sale, Feb. 22, 1922 
(1870 reproduction?) 

59. Washington's silver beaker as 44th officer to enroll in the Society of the 
Cincinnati 

60. Silver water urn with Washington coat of arms, ca. 1810 

61. 2 Silver serving spoons given by Gov. George Clinton of New York to 
George Washington. Made 1789 by John Hall, Albany, N.Y. 

62. Silver punch ladle "presented to General Washington by the Citizens of 
New York at his Inaugural as President, 1789" 

63. Chinese export believed to have been given to George Washington Parke 
Custis by George Washington Craik, son of Washington's friend and 
physician 

64. 3 Whist counters owned and used by George Washington 

65. 3 Impressions of Washington's seal 

66. 3 Ivory dress buttons of George Washington 

67. Shell buttons from Washington's dress coat 

68. 4 Silver buttons from waistcoat of George Washington 

69. Magnifying glass of George Washington 

70. Mother-of-pearl button of George Washington 

71. Shoe buckle of George Washington, brass 

72. Lock of Washington's auburn hair 



183 



73. Lock of Washington's hair (in frame) 

74. Pieces of Washington's coffin 

75. Piece of Washington's tent 

76. 3 Tent pegs from Washington's marquee 

77. Bookplate of George Washington, restrike from original 

78. Sash worn by General Washington when he took command of Continental 
Army, July 2, 1775 

79. 4 Waistcoat buttons worn by General Washington on the Continental 
Uniform 

80. Military coat buttons worn by George Washington and piece of silk dress of 
Martha Washington 

81. 6 Gun flints issued to General Washington's Lifeguard 

82. Piece of elm tree under which George Washington took command of the 
army 

83. Silk apron of Martha Washington 

84 . Silk scarf of Martha Washington 

85. Brocade from one of Martha Washington's trousseau gowns 

86. Brass earrings worn by Mrs. Lear, a slave at Mount Vernon plantation 

87. Wax imprint of seal w/portrait of G.W. 

88. Watch fob of George Washington with 2 black silk tassels 

89. Wax imprint of Washington's crest seal 

90. Daguerreotype of comb of G.W. 

9 1 . Lock of Washington's hair in leather box 

92. Piece of wood cornice from Pohick church, Virginia, where G.W. attended 

93. Hearth brush used at Mt. Vernon 

94. Horse's bit given by G.W. to nephew Col. Fielding Lewis 

95. 2 Plates, 2 demi-tasse cups & saucers, Centennial reproductions of china 
presented to Martha Washington by French officers, with "MW" and names 
of states in chain circle around edge 

96. Silver child's cup, made by Thos. Whartenby, Phila., 1811-1850 (from Cus- 
tis-Washington family) 

97. Scales used at Mount Vernon ("Bought at a Mt. Vernon sale" on label) 

98. Model of proposed marquee display 



184 



99. Sword case given by Gen. Washington to Gen. Wayne, Paoli, 1787 

100. Chair owned by G.W. & painted black at his death (in Maxwell's Qtrs.) 

101. Ladderback rocking chair owned by Mary Ball Washington, mother of G.W. 

102. Needle case of Martha Washington 

103. Kerchief of Martha Washington, embroidered silk net 

104. Treen egg cup w/2 free rings around stem, made from wood from 
Washington's Headquarters 

105. B — Taplin Improved or a Compendium of Farriery, London 1796, 
w/autograph of Lawrence Lewis, husband of Nelly Custis and G.W.'s 
nephew 

106. B — The Orphan: or, The Unhappy Marriage, London 1754, signature of 
Tobias Lear, Private Secretary to Washington and tutor to his adopted 
children 

107. B — Treatise of Practical Surveying, Robert Gibson, 1789, book plate and 
signature of George Washington 

108. B — A Serious Proposal to the Ladies for the Advancement of Their True and 
Greatest Interest, 4th Edition, 1701 Signature of Joannis Custis, wife of 
Col. John Custis (see handwritten note signed by Samuel Pennypacker re 
the Custises) 

109. Flag which flew outside Washington's headquarters 

110. Compass with sundial of George Washington 

111. Pocket telescope of George Washington 

112. Spur of George Washington 

113. 2 knives and 2 forks "used by General Washington in his camp equipment" 

114. Horn tumbler of George Washington 

115. Nut picks "owned and used by General Washington" (in original case) 

1 16. Medicine chest of George Washington 

117. 2 Wine glasses "owned and used by General Washington" 

118. Brazier of Lafayette 

119. Letter, General Washington to Stephen Moylan, March 25, 1778 

120. Letter, General Washington to Postmaster, Georgetown, May 21, 1798 

121. Letter, General Washington to General Woodford 

122. Print, "Le General Washington," engraving 



185 



123. Land survey, drawn and signed by George Washington 

124. Letter, George Washington referring to Wayne's division, June 18, 1778 

125. Letter, General Washington to General Court regarding re-supplying 
Army, December 16, 1775 

126. Letter, George Washington to Maj. Gen. St. Clair, Morristown, N.J., 
January 27, 1780 

127. Letter, George Washington to Patrick Henry, regarding Virginia Regiment, 
January 3, 1778 

128. Letter, George Washington to Thomas Wharton, request for clothing, 
January 19, 1778 

129. Letter, G. Washington to Col. Wigglesworth 

130. Letter, G. Washington to Benjamin Lincoln 

131. 2 rings containing locks of Washington's hair 

132. Locket containing lock of Washington's hair 

133. Ivory salve box of George Washington 

134. 2 Shell buttons "worn by General Washington" 

135. Snuff box of George Washington 

136. Toilet case of George Washington 

137. Candle snuffer tray of George Washington 

138. Silver shoe buckles "owned and worn informally by George Washington" 

139. Knee buckles "owned and worn by General Washington on state occasions" 

140. Breeches and waistcoat of George Washington 

141. 12 Silver camp cups of George Washington 

142. 2 barrels, G.W. inaugural china 



186 



APPENDIX IV 



1902 Correspondence between Dr. J.N. Woodman and General Davis, regarding 
the Potts Chair. Bucks County Historical Society, Mercer Museum, Doyles- 
town, Pennsylvania. 



187 



.'■ Sr/.S. N.&nafcncui, "?v -'•' . • ' V. V/ 



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' ': ; .rto9 9. fit ."• '■■*.". - ',. .,., "dp. 



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■- . Morrisyille, Pa. 10-17-1902. 
Gen. Davis, 
Dear Sir,- >' 
.-;</ . _ "^ When" in Doylestown recently, 
having be^n '..calied there, to .attend court, I visited the 
room in the .courthouse in jhidi the historical relics 
are kept and it has occured 'to i&e that perhaps a chair 
that we ha;e would be appreciated by you and if so I 
will see that it is delivered to you. This chair was one 
of a set use bj i'fashin^ton at the house of Isaac Potts, ; 
of Valley Tor£Q'. Potts' son gave it to iny grandfather 
who was his boo-: keeper when a young can, at grandfather) 
death it became cy father's property and he -lave it it ; 
me. J 

- •' . I uo nox, riv.c to ■■i\-. \,h<: ohair but "»:ill loan i I- 

v 

• ' . .. ■ ':'■" '.■'■■ ■■ .-•-..' 

(: - -as it-ray be o: iu tc :■>■:, f. Ir. oii"i;ci£ a?.fi I Co not hsv£* •-'•* 

'. -1 



> , 



U <«. * «/. . -^^X.mr' 



188 



.'9 



j? fir. JL.SJ. .&airiltmatv ?^~;;- „<* . «§>.- •_ > y «.;■ v ..- ? - - ., 

'* rtaflA. 01 •' • v. . .- -. • r ';^ ■•:?.VA'.---. :.'<-?- 
710 9 fLfl. . .- V. 



•; -r 



toar; Bldanxt Srll " Jlhanr. . . 



J./ 



pleased to show you a. collection of 700 old coins 
I ha/e collected and also to taie «ou to call upon 
Mrs.Corlies who has some relicks of worth. 



Pardon the long letter, 



Respt., 
n 



y./x. 



189 









t =.;*• :--* 



. ■■..-'--. j « - -. / 



--=- - - Horrisville, Pa. :iO-20-1902. 
■ r -General -JL^.H. Davis, 






_;. Dear Sir,- .'..'; - "' 

- . '■ ._ Replying to your letter 

which I received to-day;will say that my grandfather 
was Henry Woodman of Buckingham Twp. As for thenaae 
I of the Potts who gave it to grandfather I now learn tnat 
there is some debate between father and m. aunt Mary 
ffcjdman-who is now witn ne-as to whOifl it was that gave 
the cnair.Aunt Mary says that grandfather told her that 
Isaac Potts' widow gave it to him, but it was my fathers 

understanding tnat it was given to him by Jaues & Ann 

Potts -with whom grandfatner lived. . 
This much of the chair's history I know, -My great 

grandfather, whoa was for seven year3 in Washington's 

army, started at. the .close of the war -for his hose In the 

£.". south. He was taken sich at -Veil <& Forge and upon his 

£*, recover"^ 7 E8rried;hf.-jnoe- novar- rs turn-id south. Grandfather 



.1? .. „ _.■ .. ... .- 



190 



f;ji.->-.-s ' .y. "' '. ■-..._. • ^ 'in, j.7^0 -.;»■■ ? --. .,--- .• ;*,- ; r;.. 
"*i*j€: ^rn nea r the ?oig? At c:iri irVc ■ hi l'fl$fl 'in ,thc*t';neighbor 

. ! " -hojd,and it t.-cs 1 either- Potts ' ■ wioorc'Df son-or. 'toth- 



. -li _.- :_. ; -r v 



• that gave him the chair. In 1827. grandfather married 
Mary Smith of Buckingham Twp.and they ,lived for 53 
years in the house that was built by Benj. Smith inl773 
and during this period the chair was kept -with otner 
old relic-in the garret-at grandfather's death the 
chair became- the property of m^ father, who gave it to 
me-he said at tne time that I spent about all that I 
could earn buying such things so he would ^ive me a 
relick worth something. My father's name is also Henry 
Woodman. 

A few years ago I had a plate engraved and placed on t 
chair which gives PottsJ son. as tce_ giver of the chair 

to grandfather. 
Recently Sarah Corlies of Morrisville-a woman now we 

past 90 years of age,- who knowing of my weakness for 

old relics;gave me a handkerchief upon which is a 

* - . * ■ - *" 

picture of Layfayette, that was bou ; nt for her when he 
„ - »-. . 

visited this country, this too I. will- seni with the 
" ohair.' ■•-'-, . ■'■.-.. ;- " . . . : ■ .-• 



191 



APPENDIX V 



An inventory &c. of articles at Mount Vernon, The Mount Vernon Ladies' 
Association of the United States, Mount Vernon, Virginia. 



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APPENDIX VI 



Description of Washington's Daily Meals, compiled by the curatorial staff, 
Mount Vernon, Virginia. 



1772, Mount Vernon 

...The last night that said characters were there, (Mount Ver- 
non), just after the cloth was removed from the supper table, a 
man of colour named Billy, Colonel Washington's favourite 
servant, who had been sent by his master to Alexandria for 
letters and newspapers... Col. Washington, with a cast of his 
hand, placed the newspapers about midway the supper table, 
around which there were then sitting a large company, Lord 
Sterling on the right, and Capt. Foye, on the left hand of Mrs. 
Washington... When Col. Washington was uttering the words 
"the Virginia riflemen alone," he struck the table so violently 
with his clenched hand, that some wine glasses and a decanter 
near her with difficulty maintained their upright positions. 

Anonymous, the Washington Republican 



1776, New York 

General Washington dined at three o'clock and doubtless main- 
tained a generous Virginia hospitality at his table. Besides the 
six or more members of his military family, there were always 
official guests. The brigadier and officer of the day and the 
brigade-major of the day had a standing invitation, when on 
duty, to dine at headquarters, and the invitation was almost a 
command. Other members of the staff, happening at head- 
quarters, distinguished visitors to the army, and the general 
officers and colonels were frequent guests. Colonel Silliman 
says in a letter to his wife, on October 10: — 

General Washington's servant has this Minit been in with 
a Billet for me and my two field officers to come and dine 
with him this day. Very extraordinary this. I am often 
invited myself but I have never had the invitation extended 
beyond myself before. 



203 



Shelton, William Henry. The Jumel Mansion, Boston; Houghton Mifflin Co., 1916, p. 36. 



1776 Sept. 29, New York 

Such were the conditions on Sunday, the 29th of September, 
when Colonel Gold S. Silliman wrote to his wife: — 

General Washington's servant has just been in with a billet 
inviting me to dinner. He required an answer which is 
unusual — Colonel Douglas received the like — I don't know 
what to make of it — I am suspicious — but we shall see. 

Strange to say, the precise date of this dinner is still enveloped 
in mystery, for General Washington's formal invitation to 
Colonel Douglas, for which I am indebted to Mr. Benjamin L. 
Douglas, of Boston, seemingly contradicts the letter of Colonel 
Silliman as to the date, and at the same time contradicts itself. 
It is a faded scrap of paper, about three by seven inches in size. 

"General Washington's compliments to Commandant 
Douglas. Requests the favor of his company at dinner to 
day at 3 o'clock. 

Tuesday Morn'g. Septemb'r 30th." 

Now it happened, in that particular year, that September 30 
was Monday, and Tuesday was October 1. Here is evidently an 
error of the aide who wrote the invitation to Colonel Douglas. 
Colonel Silliman's letter, dated Sunday, September 29, says, 
"Colonel Douglas has the like." Having written a letter in those 
days, it was customary to hold on to it until an opportunity was 
found to send it by some chance messenger, and events that 
occurred during the period of waiting were frequently jotted 
down without entering a new date. It is probably that Colonel 
Silliman was finishing his Sunday letter on Tuesday morning 
with his story of the invitation, and that the aide who wrote 
Colonel Douglas's invitation forgot for the moment that the 
month of September was over and October had begun. The 
dinner was evidently on Tuesday, October 1, and the Commit- 
tee from Congress, which made its report to that body on 
Thursday, was paying its farewell visit to Washington, before 
starting in the early morning for Philadelphia. 

Washington was overburdened with business cares; General 
Sullivan and the Committee from Congress were guests at 
headquarters, but the Commander-in-Chief had time to be 
politic. The dinner took place in the dining-room at the Morris 



204 



house, and Colonel Silliman tells us, in his next letter to his 
wife, of what happened. He wrote that the Adjutant-General 
continued his insults to the New England troops at the dinner, 
but that General Washington took him to one side and told him 
that he did not believe in such conduct. Furthermore, he tells 
us that the Committee from Congress came in during the 
dinner and that he had the opportunity to tell them if such talk 
continued "the Continent would be ruined." 

Shelton, William Henry. The Jumel Mansion, Boston; Houghton Mifflin Co., 1916, pp. 73-74. 



1779 February 26 

...The table was elegantly furnished, and the provisions ample, 
but not abounding in superfluities. The civilities of the table 
were performed by Colonel Hamilton and the other gentlemen 
of the family, the general and lady being seated at the side of 
the table. In conversation, his excellency's expressive coun- 
tenance is peculiarly interesting and pleasing; a placid smile is 
frequently observed on his lips, but a loud laugh, it is said, 
seldom, if ever, escapes him. He is polite and attentive to each 
individual at table, and retires after the compliments of a few 
glasses.... 

Thacher, James. Military Journal of the American Revolution... (Hartford, Connecticut: 
Hurlbut, Williams and Company, 1862), p. 160. 



1780 

...The Baron (von Steuben) having accepted the invitation we 
sat down to dinner. Mrs. Washington was accompanied by a 
young lady, a relative whose name, I think, was Custis. If I 
were Mr. Hamilton, the celebrated writer of Men and Manners 
in America, I could describe in detail all the dishes that were 
set before us, and tell you how they looked and how they tasted; 
but, alas! I paid no attention to them as I was restricted to a 
severe diet and they have escaped from my memory. I can only 
say that I saw there for the first time preserved strawberries 
whether that kind of sweetmeats was then not so common in 
France as in this country or whatever may be the cause, I had 
never seen any before. Those were very large and beautiful, 



205 



and I indulged in eating a few of them. I have been very fond 
of them ever since... 

Peter Stephen du Ponceau to his granddaughter, Anne L. Grasche, written for her when he was 
old. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, July 1939, vol. 63, p. 313. 



1782 

On my return from the southward in 1782, 1 spent a day or two 
at the American camp at Verplank's point on the North River 
[Hudson], and had the honor of dining with General 
Washington. I had suffered severely from an ague, which I 
could not quit of, though I had taken the exercise of a hard 
trotting horse, and got thus far to the northward in the month 
of October. The General observing it, told me he was sure I had 
not met with a good glass of wine for some time, an article then 
very rare, but that my disorder must be frightened away; he 
made me drink three or four of his silver camp cups of excellent 
Madeira at noon, and recommended to me to take a generous 
glass of claret after dinner, a prescription by no means repug- 
nant to my feelings, and which I most religiously followed. I 
mounted my horse next morning, and continued my journey to 
Massachusetts, without ever experiencing the slightest return 
of my disorder. 

De Chastellux, Marquis, Travels in North America in the Years 1780, 1781, and 1782, The 
University of North Carolina Press, p. 280. 



1785 June 30, Mount Vernon 

...dined with only Mrs. Washington which I believe is the first 
instance of it since my retirement from public life. 

Fitzpatrick, Diaries of George Washington, vol. 2, p. 386. 



1785 November 16, Mount Vernon 

At three dinner was on table... every thing was set off with a 
peculiar taste and at the same time very neat and plain. The 
General sent the bottle about pretty freely after dinner, and 
gave success to the navigation of the Potomac for his toast.... 



206 



After tea the General Washington retired to his study and left 
us with the President, his lady, and the rest of the company. If 
he had not been anxious to hear the news of Congress from Mr. 
Lee, most probably he would not have returned to supper but 
gone to bed at his usual hour, nine o'clock — for he seldom makes 
any ceremony. We had a very elegant supper about that time. 

The General with a few glasses of champagne got quite merry, 
and being with his intimate friends laughed and talked a good 
deal. Before strangers, he is generally very reserved and sel- 
dom says a word. I was fortunate in being in his company with 
his particular acquaintances. 

from: Quebec to Carolina in 1785-1786, Being the Travel Diary and Observations of Robert 
Hunter, Jr. a Young Merchant of London. Huntington Library, 1943, pp. 191-198. 



1786 December 26, Mount Vernon 

"...Altho' I lament the effect, I am pleased at the cause which 
has deprived us of the pleasure of your aid in the attack of the 
Christmas pies: we had one yesterday on which all the com- 
pany, tho' pretty numerous, were hardly able to make an 
impression...." 

Mount Vernon, December 26, 1786. (Writings; 29:125-129.) George Washington to David 
Humphreys 



1789 August, New York 

...I propose to fix a Levey day soon. I have waited for Mrs. 
Washington to begin and she has fixed on every fryday 

8 oclock. I attended upon the last, Mrs. Smith & Charles. 

I found it quite a crowded room. The form of Reception is this, 
the servants announce & Col. Humphries or Mr. Lear, receives 
every Lady at the door, & Hands her up to Mrs. Washington to 
whom she makes a most Respectfull courtsey and then is seated 
without noticing any of the rest of the company. The Pressident 
then comes up and speaks to the Lady, which he does with a 
grace dignity & ease, that leaves Royal George far behind him. 
The company are entertained with Ice creems & Lemonade, 
and retire at their pleasure performing the same ceremony 
when they quit the Room. I cannot help smiling when I read 



207 



the Boston puffs, that the Pressident is unmoved amidst all the 
dissipations of the city of New York. Now I am wholy at a loss 
to determine the meaning of the writer. Not a single publick 
amusement is their in the whole city, no not even a publick 
walk, and as to dinners, I believe their are six made in Boston 
to one here, unless it is for some particular person to whom a 
Number of families wish to pay attention. There are six 
Senators who have their Ladies and families with them, but 
they are in Lodgings the chief of them, & not in a situation to 
give dinners — as to the mode of visiting, less time is expended 
in this way, than in sending word to each person & passing an 
afternoon with them, tho I own on the score of pleasure that 
would be to me the most agreeable. I have returned more than 
sixty visits all of them in 3 or 4 afternoons & excepting at the 
Pressidents, have drank tea only at two other places and dined 
but once out, since I arrived. 

Letter of Abigail Adams to her sister, Richmond Hill, August 9, 1789. New Letters of Abigail 
Adams 1788-1801 by Stewart Mitchell (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1947), p. 19. 



1793 October 

"...the great Bell Summoned Me to Breakfast... After a very 
substantial Repast in which Indian hoe cake with Butter & 
Honey seemed the principal Component Parts we withdrew till 
Dinner at which and till late in this Evg we were favoured with 
his Company — Our Conversation general and the Subject of 
Politics avoided." 



From the diary of Winthrop Sargent 



1794 February 13 

"...I wd. take the liberty of requesting you'll be so good as to 
procure & send me 2 or 3 Bush, of the Chocolate Shells such as 
we've frequently drank Chocolate of at Mt. Vernon, as my Wife 
thinks it agreed with her better than any other Breakfast.... 

from a letter of Burges Ball to George Washington, February 13, 1794, in the Washington 
Papers, Library of Congress, (see RM-610, PS4503) 



208 



1794 June 6, Philadelphia 

"...I was asked to breakfast... Mrs. Washington herself made 
tea and coffee for us. On the table were two small plates of 
sliced tongue, dry toast, bread and butter, &c. but no broiled 
fish, as is the general custom. Miss Custis, her granddaughter, 
a very pleasing young lady, of about sixteen, sat next to her, 
and her brother George Washington Custis.... There was but 
little appearance of form: one servant only attended, who had 
no livery; a silver urn for hot water, was the only article of 
expence on the table...." 

Wansey, Henry, An Excursion to the United States or North America, in the summer of 1794. 
Salisbury, 1798, pp. 108, 112. 



1795 Christmas Eve 
From a letter of Theophilus Bradbury to his daughter, Mrs. Hooper. 

Philadelphia, Sat. Dec. 26, 1795 

"Last Thursday I had the honor of dining with the President in 
company with the Vice-President, the Senators, the Delegates 
of Massachusetts and some other members of Congress, about 
20 in all. 

"In the middle of the table was placed a piece of table furniture 
about six feet long and two feet wide, rounded at the ends. It 
was either of wood gilded or polished metal, raised about an 
inch with a silver rim round it like that round a tea board; in 
the center was a pedestal of plaster of Paris with images upon 
it, and on each end figures, male and female of the same. It 
was very elegant and used for ornament only. The dishes were 
placed all around, and there was an elegant variety of roast 
beef, veal, turkeys, ducks, fowls, hams, etc.: puddings, jellies, 
oranges, apples, nuts, almonds, figs, raisins, and a variety of 
wines and punch. 

"We took our leave at six, more than an hour after the candles 
were introduced. No lady but Mrs. Washington dined with us. 



209 



We were waited on by four or five men servants dressed in 
livery." 

Copied from Christmas with George Washington 1776-1799. Privately printed by Franklin 
Printing Company, n.d., but perhaps 1954. Philadelphia. 



1796 July 16, Mount Vernon 

From an extract from Benjamin H. Latrobe's diary: 

...Dinner was served at about half past three. ..he placed me at 
the left hand of Mrs. Washington, Miss Custis seated at her 
right, and himself next to her about the middle of the table. 
There was very little conversation during dinner. A few jokes 
passed between the President and young Lafayette whom he 
treats more like a child than a guest. I felt a little embarrassed 
at the quiet reserved air that prevailed. As I drink no wine and 
the President drank only three glasses, the party soon returned 
to the Portico.... Coffee was brought about six oclock.... Break- 
fast was served up in the usual Virginia style, tea coffee and 
cold boiled meet;... 

Fitzpatrick, Writings of Washington, v. 35, p. 14 In 



1797 May 29, Mount Vernon 

... breakfast (a little after seven o'clock, about the time I 
presume you are taking leave of Mrs. McHenry) is ready; that, 
this being over, I mount my horse and ride around my farms, 
which employs me until it is time to dress for dinner, at which 
I rarely miss seeing strange faces, come as they say out of 
respect for me. Pray, would not the word curiosity answer as 
well? And how different this from having a few social friends 
at a cheerful board! The usual time of sitting at table, a walk, 
and tea brings me within the dawn of candlelight;... 

George Washington to James McHenry, Secretary of War, in Fitzpatrick, Writings, vol. 35, pp. 
455-456; Haskin, Frederic J., The George Washington Bicentennia], p. 29. 



1797 June, Mount Vernon 

...The General was out on horseback viewing his laborers at 
harvest; we were desired to tarry until he should return.... We 



210 



had rum punch brought us by a servant. We viewed the 
gardens and walks.... The President returned; he received us 
very politely.... The president came and desired us to walk in 
to dinner. We then walked into a room where were Mrs. Law, 
Mrs. Peter, and a young lady, all granddaughters of Mrs. 
Washington. The President directed us where to sit (no grace 
was said). Mrs. Washington sat at the head, the President next 
to her at her right.... The dinner was very good — a small 
roasted pig, boiled leg of lamb, beef, peas, lettuce, cucumbers, 
artichokes, etc., puddings, tarts, etc. We were desired to call 
for what drink we chose. He took a glass of wine with Mrs. Law 
first, which example was followed by Dr. Croker and Mrs. 
Washington, myself and Mrs. Peter, Mr. Fayette and the young 
lady, whose name is Custis. When the cloth was taken away 
the President gave "All our Friends".... 

From the diary of Amariah Frost, quoted in Conway, Moncure D. "Footprints in Washington- 
land," Harper's New Monthly Magazine, pp. 743-744. 



1797 July 31, Mount Vernon 

George Washington to Tobias Lear: 

...Unless some one pops in, unexpectedly — Mrs. Washington & 
myself will do what I believe has not been done within the last 
twenty Years by us, — that is to set down to dinner by ourselves. 

Letters and recollections of George Washington, p. 120 Supplementary Letters 



1798 Sept. 3 

General Washington presents his compliments to Mr. Edmund 
Lee, and requests the pleasure of his company to dine today 
with Genl. Marshall and Bd. Washington. Monday Sept. 3d. 
98. 

Manuscript invitation owned (Jan. 1949) by Mrs. DeCourcy W. Thom, former Vice-Regent for 
Maryland. Supplementary Letters 



1798 June 5, Mount Vernon 

...Since his retirement he has led a quiet and regular life. He 
gets up at 5 o'clock in the morning, reads and writes until seven. 



211 



He breakfasts on tea and cakes made from maize; because of 
his teeth he makes slices spread with butter and honey. He 
then immediately goes on horseback to see the work in the 
fields;... He returns at two o'clock, dresses, goes to dinner. If 
there are guests, he loves to chat after dinner with a glass of 
Madeira in his hand. After dinner he diligently reads the 
newspapers, of which he receives about ten of different kinds. 
He answers letters, etc. Tea at 7 o'clock; he chats until nine 
and then goes to bed. 

Niemsewicz, Julian Ursyn. Under Their Vine and Fig Tree (translated and edited by Metchie 
J.E. Budka. (Elizabeth, New Jersey: The Grassman Publishing Co., Inc., 1965), p. 102-103. 



1798 December, Mount Vernon 

Wife of Judge Cushing to ?, February 1799 

We reached Mount Vernon the evening before Xmas and if 
anything could have added to our enjoyment it was the arrival 
of General and Mrs. Pinckney the next day, while we were 
dining. You may be sure it was a joyful meeting, and at the 
place my wishes had pointed out. To be in the company of so 
many esteemed friends, to hear our good General Washington 
converse upon political subjects without reserve, and to hear 
General and Mrs. Pinckney relay what they saw and heard in 
France, was truly a feast for me. Thus the moments glided 
away for two days, when our reason pointed out the propriety 
of our departing.... 

1799 February 4, Mount Vernon 

...We dined about four. Mrs. Washington at the head [of the 
tablel, the General on her right, Miss Custis on her left.... At 
dinner fwe were served J wine, porter and beer. After it we 
drank about three glasses when we took our leave.... At dinner 
we had two pint globular decanters on table, after dinner large 
wine glasses. Port was brought in claret bottles.... 

Menu 

Feb. 4, [ 1799,1 D.[ inner] G. Washington. Leg [of] boil[ed] pork, 
top [at head of table]; goose, bot [at foot of table]; roast beef, 
round cold boilled] beef, mutton chops, hommony, cabbage, 
potatoes, pickles, fried tripe, onions, etc. Table cloth wiped 



212 



[crumbs brushed off], mince pies, tarts, cheese; cloth of] fl, port, 
madeira, two kinds [of] nuts, apples, raisins. Three servants.... 

Joshua Brooks, unpublished journal, "Annual Report," Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, 1947, 
p. 19-22. 



1797-1799 

Reminiscence of George Washington in retirement 

...One day in retirement was the history of his whole domestic 
life. He rose before sunrise, always wrote or read until 7 in 
summer or half past seven in winter. His breakfast was then 
ready — he ate three small mush cakes (Indian meal) swimming 
in butter and honey, drank three cups of tea without cream — 
after breakfast retired to his room if alone — if he had company 
to the drawing room — at 9 he rode to his farm until 2 — then 
dressed for dinner, at 3 he dined, always preferred plain roast 
or boiled and an Indian meal cake. After dinner he drank 3 
glasses of madeira. Late a small plate of Indian walnuts. In 
the afternoon he remained with his company or if alone retired 
to his library — at sunset in summer and at candlelight in 
winter tea was brought in, after tea he remained with us until 
9 — if any ceremonious company were at Mt. Vn. until 10. He 
generally wrote or read an hour in his room and then retired 
to bed. After tea he read the newspapers to grandmama or 
listened to his favorite songs, unless we had ceremonious 
company — he talked very little — never of himself — never of the 
war or anything in which he had borne a distinguished part, 
unless particularly called upon.... 

Eleanor Parke Custis Lewis to Elizabeth Bordley Gibson, February 23, 1823 



1802 January 2, Breakfast at Mount Vernon 

...Ham, cold corn beef, cold fowl, red herrings, cold mutton, the 
dishes ornamented with sprigs of parsley, and other vegetables 
from the garden. At the head of the table was the tea and coffee 
equipage, where she (Mrs. Washington), seated herself, and 
sent the tea and coffee to the company. 

From Diary of Manasseh Cutler 



213 



APPENDIX VII 



Catalog of Washington's Library of Military Works in the Boston Athenaeum, 
compiled and edited by Appleton P.C. Griffin, 1897. 



215 



: - 

- • ■ .- 



- 




K 


■ 


■ ', 


• ■ 
• 








■ 


. i 


■ ~* . - 


v-._ . 


'/«. 


- 



a Catalogue 



«■■ i 



OF THE 



WASHINGTON COLLECTION 



IN 



I 



THE BOSTON ATHEN£UM 

COMPILED AND ANNOTATED BY 

APPLETON P. C. GRIFFIN 



IN FOUR PARTS: 
I. Books from the Library of General Georce Wasmngton 
II. Other Books from Mount Vernon 

III. The Writings of Washington 

IV. Washtngtoniana 

8&tti) an Sppenljii 

THE INVENTORY OF WASHINGTON'S BOOKS DRAWN UP BY THE 
APPRAISERS OF HIS ESTATE 

WITH NOTES IN REGARD TO THE FULL TITLES OF THE SEVERAL BOOKS, AND THE LATER 

HISTORY AND PRESENT OWNERSHIP OF THOSE NOT IN 

THE ATHENAEUM COLLECTION 



By WILLIAM COOLIDGE LANE 

Librarian of the Boston Athenczum 



THE BOSTON ATHEN/EUM 
1897 



216 



MILITARY WORKS. 537 



Additional Titles. 

Maryland. Abridgment and collection of the Acts of Assembly of 
the Province of Maryland, at present in force. By James Bisset 
Phila. 1759. 8°. 

Washington's accounts show that he bought a copy of this 
Nov. 3, 1759, and paid 20 shillings. 



MILITARY WORKS. 

404 Acts of the Parliament respecting Militia, 1 vol. #0.25 

382 Essays on Field Artillery, by Anderson, 1 vol. .75 

Anderson, John. Essays on field artillery. 1788. See the letter 
quoted on p. 12 of this Catalogue. 

406 *Anderson on Artillery (in French), 1 vol. .25 

Anderson, John. Essais sur l'artillerie de campagne. [Paris. 1791.] 

409 *The Duties of Soldiers in General, 3 vols. 1.50 

This may be the following work, — 
The Art of war: 1. The duties of all military officers. 2. The duties 
of soldiers in general. 3. The rules and practice of the greatest 
generals. By the Chevalier de La Valiere. Phila. 1776. A. 

Another copy, without autograph, was sold among the Washing- 
ton books at Thomas's in 1876 (lot 129), and was bought by E. D. 
Mack (?) It may be that the "3 vols." above indicates three 
copies. The Athenaeum copy is a small, thin book, lettered simply 
" W " on the back. 

385 Treatise of Military Discipline, 1 vol. 1.50 

Bland, H. A Treatise of military discipline. London. 1727 (9th 
edition, 1762). 8°. 

This book was included in an " Invoice of Sundrys shipped per 
the Endeavor, Capt. Younger, bound to Virginia," April, 1756. 6 sh. 

377 *Field Engineer, 1 vol. 8vo. 1.50 

Clairac, Louis Andre. The field engineer. Dublin. 1758. A. 

308 Daveis' Cavalry, 1 vol. 1.00 

Davie, W. R. Instructions for the formations and movements of the 
cavalry. Halifax. 1799. 8°. A. Pres. 

Sold at Thomas's in 1876 (lot 43) to Sabin for $8. 
Sent to Washington by the author, through Secretary McHenry 
of the War Department, as is shown by a letter from the latter 
dated Aug. 14, 1799. 

59 Uniform of the Forces of Great Britain in 1742, 1 vol. 20.00 

Description of the cloathing of His Majesty's bands of gentlemen 
pensioners, yeomen of the guards, and regiments of foot-guards. 



217 



538 INVENTORY OF WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY. 

foot, marines and invalids on the establishments of Great Britain 
and Ireland. Anno 1742. 4?. Also engraved title-page. 

This interesting volume of plates is preserved in the New York 
State Library, Albany. 

393 Traits de Cavalerie, 1 vol. fol. $6.00 

562 Treatise on Cavalry with large Cuts. 50.00 

Drummond de Melfort, Louis, Comte de. Traite" sur la cavalerie. 
Paris. 1776. F°. With folio atlas of plates. B. 

Sold at Birch's in April, 1891, (lot 316) for $18. Now owned by 
Bishop John F. Hurst of Washington, D. C. 
Presented to Washington by Rochambeau. 

384 *Essay on the Art of War, 1 vol. 1.00 

Essay on the art of war. London. 1761. A. 

376 *Code of Military Standing Resolutions, 2 vols. 4.00 

Grace, Henry. The code of military standing regulations of the 
Bengal Establishment. Calcutta. [1791.] A. 

17 *Count De Grasse, 1 vol. 1.00 

Grasse, Comte de. Memoire [sur le combat naval du 12 avril, 1782. 
Paris. 1782.] A. 

378 *Army List, 1 vol. .75 

Great Britain. Army. A list of the general and field-officers, as they 
rank in the Army. London. [1772.] A. 

375 * Prussian Evolutions, 1 vol. 1.50 

379 *Prussian Evolutions, 1 vol. 4to. .50 

Hanson, Thomas. The Prussian evolutions in actual engagements. 
Phila. [1775.] Two copies. 
Washington subscribed to 8 sets, May 2c, 1775, £3. o. o. 

405 "The Partisan, 1 vol. .50 

Jeney, — . The partisan; or The art of making war in detachment 
[Transl. by J. Berkenhout.] London. 1760. A. 

This is probably a translation from a work by Jacques Marie 
Ray de Genies : " L'art de la guerre pratique," Paris, 1754- 

374 *Military Discipline, 1 vol. 410. 2.00 

[Lambart, Richard, Earl of Cavari.] A new system of military disci- 
pline, founded upon principle. London. 1773. A. 

380 *Leblond's Engineer, 2 vols. 8vo. 3.00 

Le Blond, Guillaume. The military engineer. London. 1759. A. 

386 List of Military Officers, British and Irish, in 1777, 1 vol. .50 

John Millan published a " List of the officers in the army on the 
British and Irish establishments for the year 1774" The above 
may be a later edition of this or one of the other regular Army lists. 



218 



MIUTARY WORKS. 539 

407 List of Officers under Sir William Howe in America, 1 vol. $9- 2 5 

A List of the general and staff officers, and of the officers of the several 
regiments serving in North-America under the command of His 
Excellency General Sir William Howe, K. B. New-York, James 
Rivington. 1778. 8°. Pres. 

Inscribed, "For His Excell. Genl. Wa — from his very — May 
6th 1778." Once very badly worn and now exquisitely repaired. 
It belongs to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

388 Muller on Artillery, 1 vol. 1.50 

Muller, John. A treatise on artillery. London. 1757. 8°. 

381 Muller on Fortification, 1 vol. 2.00 

388 Muller on Fortification, 1 vol. 2.00 

Muller, John. A treatise containing the practical part of fortification. 
In four parts. 2d ed. London. 1764. 8°. 

The Library of Yale University bought a copy of this at the 
Cooke sale in 1883, in which is a note by Sabin, — " Purchased by 
J. Sabin & Sons at sale of Washington books in Philadelphia, Nov. 
28, 1876; " but the title is not to be found in the printed Catalogue 
of that sale. Mr. Henkels states that at the conclusion of the sale 
of the books in the Catalogue, a lot of " imperfect books including 
some school books with Washington's scribbling in them as a 
school boy " were sold to Mr. Chambers, who later sold them to 
Sabin. 

395 *Ordinances of the King, 1 vol. 2.00 

Ordonnance du Roi, concernant le corps du genie. Paris. 1777. 

The following, sold at the 1876 sale (lot 120) to " Hill " for 
75 cents, may also perhaps be identified with this entry. 
Ordonnance du Roi pour regler l'exercice de l'infanterie. Paris. 
1766. F°. With folding plates. 

Neither book bears any marks of ownership. 

401 'Norfolk Exercise, 1 vol. .25 

[Pickering, Timothy.] A plan of exerc'se, for the militia of the 
province of the Massachusetts-Bay ; extracted from the plan of 
discipline, for the Norfolk militia. Boston. 1774. 

390 *Militia, 1 vol. 8vo. 1.00 

Pickering, Timothy. An easy plan of discipline for a militia. Salem. 
1775. A. 
Two other pamphlets are bound with this. 

373 "Count Saxe's Plan for New-modelling the French Army, 1 vol. .50 

Saxe, Herman Maurice, Comte dt. Plan for new-modelling the French 
army. London. 1753. A. 

309 Simms's Military Course, 1 vol. 1.00 

Simes, Thomas. A military course for the government and conduct of 
a battalion, designed for their regulations in quarter, camp, or 



219 



54° INVENTORY OF WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY. 

garrison ; with useful observations and instructions for their man- 
ner of attack and defence. Ornamented with a frontispiece and 
twenty copper-plate plans. London. 1777. 8°. A. Pres. 

Inscribed on the fly-leaf, — " For his Excellency General Wash- 
ington, from his Ob't Humble Servant, William McCreery, 
Bordeaux, 22 Feb. 1778." 

This was sold at Thomas's in 1876 (lot 72) to John R. Baker for 
$9; at the sale of his collection in Feb. 1891 (lot 21) it brought 
$ 100 ; it was again sold at Birch's in Dec. 1892 (lot 479, facsimile 
of title-page given), when $270 was paid for it. It is now owned by 
Mr. Luther Kountz of New York. 

408 The Military Guide, 1 vol. $0.50 

Simes, Thomas. The military guide for young officers. Advance 
sheets, pp. 1-264 + Military dictionary, 36 leaves, A to Portugal. 
8°. A. Pres. 

The title is written on the first page, with the following inscrip- 
tion, " Now in the press, the following is as much as the pub- 
lishers have got done. For His Excellency General Washington, 
from his Devoted hum' e Servt Rob' Aitken one of the Publishers." 
Another note shows that the book was seized during the Civil 
War as contraband of war (being then in John A. Washington's 
possession in Farquhar Co., Va.) ; but was returned by command 
of Gen. Geary, " the Gen. thinking the book might be highly 
prized for the writing and the signature on the fly-leaves." 

At the sale at Thomas's in i§76 (lot 27) it was bought by John 
R. Baker for $14. When his collection was sold at Birch's in Feb. 
1891 (lot 22, facsimiles of first two pages) it passed into the hands 
of Mr. John Nicholas Brown of Providence, who still owns it. 

372 Military Instructions, 1 vol. .50 

This may mean either of the two following, more likely the 
former, if the author is to be identified with Thomas Simes, the 
author of two other works belonging to Washington. 
Sims (or Simes?), Thomas. The military instructor, or [for?] Non- 
commissioned officers and private men of the infantry. London. 
1779. 12°. 

Watts gives the name in this form, and this one title under it. 
The British Museum Catalogue does not give it at all. 
Roberts, Daniel. Military instructions. London. 1798. 4 . 

See also beyond Stevenson, Roger. Military instructions. 

128 Doctrine of Projectiles, 1 vol. .50 

This is probably the following, — 
Starrat, William. The doctrine of projectiles, demonstrated and 
applied to all the most useful problems in practical gunnery. 
Dublin. 1733. 8°. 

392 *Steuben's Regulations, 1 vol. 8vo. .75 

[Steuben, F. W. A. H. F., Freihcrr von.\ Regulations for the order 
and discipline of the troops of the United States. Part I. Phila. 
1779. A. 



220 



MILITARY WORKS. 54 1 

400 Military Institutions for Officers, 1 vol. #0.50 

Stevenson, Roger. Military instructions for officers detached in the 
field. Phila. 1775. 8°. 

383 A System of Camp Discipline, 1 vol. 2.00 

System of camp discipline, military honours, garrison-duty, — and other 
regulations of the land forces, collected by a gentleman of the 
army ; to which is added General Kane's Campaign of King Wil- 
liam and the Duke of Marlborough. Illustrated with colored 
plates. London. 1757. 8°. A. 

Sold at Thomas's in 1876 (lot 42) to John R. Baker, for $8. At 
the sale of his collection at Birch's in Feb. 1891 (lot 9), it brought 
$100, and is now in the possession of Mr. W. F. Havemeyer of 
New York. 

60 *Otway's Art of War, 1 vol. 3.00 

Turpin DE Crisse, Lancelot, Comte de. An essay on the art of war. 
Translated by Captain Joseph Otway. London. 1761. A. 

387 Vallancey on Fortification, 1 vol. 1.50 

Vallancey, Charles. An Essay on fortification ; or An enquiry of 
the great superiority of the attack over the defence. With a 
Supplement, containing Marshal Saxe's New system of fortification 
and construction of wooden forts. From the French. Dublin. 
1757. 8°. 16 copper-plates. A. 

A book-plate seems to have been removed. This volume is 
owned by Bishop John F. Hurst of Washington. 

403 *Webb's Treatise on the Appointments of the Army, 1 vol. .25 

Webb, Thomas. A military treatise on the appointments of the army. 
Phila. 1759. 

402 Advice of Officers of the British Army, 1 vol. .25 

This is probably 
[Williamson, John.] Advice to the officers of the British army. 
With some hints to the drummer and private soldier. London. 
The 1 2th edition was printed in 1787. 

371 *Manceuvres, 1 vol. 8vo. 1.00 

Young, William. Manoeuvres, or Practical observations on the art of 
war. London. 177 1. 



Additional Titles. 

Grandmaison, de. A treatise on the military service of light 

horse, and light infantry, in the field, and in fortified places. By 
Major General de Grandmaison, formerly a Captain, with the rank 
of Lieutenant Colonel of Cavalry, in the Voluntiers of Flanders. 



221 



542 INVENTORY OF WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY. 

Translated from the French by Major Lewis Nicola. Phila. 
1777- 8°. 

This volume bears no mark of Washington's ownership, but it 
was sold with other books of Washington's at Thomas's in 1876 
(lot 128), when it was bought by Mr. Willis P. Hazard, of West 
Chester, Pa., who still owns it. 

LIGHT infantry exercise : as ordered in his Majesty's Regulations for 
the movements of the troops. Printed for the War Office by T. 
Egerton. [London.] 1797. 

With the Washington manuscripts in the Library of the Depart- 
ment of State, Washington. 

Pariset, Nicholas. The American trooper's pocket companion . . . 
for the cavalry of the United States. Trenton. 1793. 2 4°- 

The author wrote to Washington from Trenton, Dec. 13, 1793, — 

" I flatter myself with a hope that you will pardon the liberty I 
have taken to dedicate to your Excellency this small performance. 
My labour shall be amply rewarded if it meets with your Excel- 
lency's appprobation. 

u I purpose presenting it to the CongTess for their acceptance as 
the ' Book of the Discipline of the Cavalry of the United States.' " 

The book, so far as I know, has not been sold or catalogued, and 
does not appear on the Inventory. 

Rules and regulations for the formations, field exercise, and move- 
ments of His Majesty's forces. [London.] 1792. 

This is with the Washington manuscripts in the Library of the 
Department of State, Washington. 

Simons, James. A new principle of tactics practiced by the armies 
of the Republic of France illustrated and recommended to be 
practiced by the regular and militia armies of the United States. 
Charleston. 1797. 

With the Washington manuscripts in the Library of the Depart- 
ment of State, Washington. 

White, Anthony Walton. The military system for the New Jersey 
cavalry. New Brunswick. 1793. A. Pres. 
Owned by Mr. W. R. Weeks of Newark, N. J. 



AGRICULTURE AND OTHER USEFUL ARTS. 

451 *The Hot-house Gardener, 1 vol. $1.50 

Abercrombie, John. The hothouse gardener. London. 17S9. 

424 Agricultural Inquiries, 1 vol. I -°° 

This may mean : 
Peters, R. Agricultural Enquiries on plaister of Paris. Phila. 1797. 
The work is also entered in another part of the Inventory. 



222 



APPENDIX VIM 



Washington expense accounts, January 4, 1777-June 30, 1778, Washington 
Papers, Caleb Gibbs' Account Book, Library of Congress. 

Daily Expenses Brought Forward 1777 

January 4 
To the foot of the other side brought forward 1,008 6 7 

January 6 
To 5 geese @ 6/6 22/6 To turkeys @ 5/6 49/6 3 12 

To 30 eggs [?] 1 gal. rum 30/ 1 14 

January 7 
To Cash paid Servant Jenny $8.00 3 

January 8 

To 2 quarters veal @ 9/6 19 

6 bush.ll apples 7/6 To 1 quarter veal 2/ 15 6 
To Cash paid [George?] [Warden?] for a chest 

[which General's Servant having had ?] 16 3 

To [?] To 4 lbs. butter [?] 1 2 

[?] 2 2 6 

10th 
To Cash paid for sundries which Mrs. 

Thompson bought in the house 15 

[?] mutton [?] 

[?] 
[?] 
To [?] pair of gloves brought to His Excellency 15 

January 20 
To 2 turkeys @ 7/6 12 6 

To quarter veal 2/6 To 4 turkeys 6/24/ 1 13 6 

To 2 geese 11 

To 10 lbs. butter @ 3/30 To eggs @ 5/ 15 

January 28 
To 6 fowls @ 2/6 15/ To 2 rabbits 3/ 18 

To quarter of veal @ 8/ [?] eggs 1 4 

February 3 
To 1 bush.ll apples 8 

February 8 
To 1 quarter veal 16/ To 2 rabbits 2/6 8 6 



223 



1 


1 


14 


6 


7 




18 


9 



February 10 
To 2 turkeys @ 7/6 15/ To 1 goose 6/ 
To 1 turkey 6/6 To 4 fowls @ 2/8 
To eggs [?] To 6 quails 3/ 
To side fresh pork 18/9 

m 

To 12 bottles mustard 3/9 bottle 2 5 

January 17 

To Cash paid Servant Jenny $18.00 3 

To Cash paid Negrao Hannah $4.00 1 10 

To cash paid for the canister omitted 10 

To expenses [?] with the Genl Horse 1 17 6 

February 20 
To 1 large turkey [?] To 116 bottles @ 2/ 17 15 

March 7 
To Cash paid Mr. Ogden for sundries bought in 
the house 13 2 6 

March 8 
To 2 turkeys [?] 
To 8 fowls @ 3/ [?] to 4 bush, potatoes [?] 

March 14 
[?] 
To 2 geese @ 7/6 15/ To 4 doz. eggs 2/8/ 

March 17 

To Col. [Fitzgerald?] accting for Sundrys as pr. 
bill 

To Cash paid for a case of surveying instru- 
ments for the General at Mr. Dyson's 

To 3 doz. eggs [?] one quarter pork 

To [?] lbs. fresh butter To 1 turkey 7/6 

To Cash paid for washing the General's 
[hankerchiefs?] 

[?] to 6 geese. ..[?] 

To Cash paid for parsnips 

April 3 
To Cash paid to Col. Tilghman for butter & 

venison [?] 
To Cash paid for window glass [?] 

April 6 
To Cash paid for L?l a hand glass for Mrs. 

Washington 
To 2 pudg dishes, 1 brush, 2 china mugs 
To 1 glass mug To 1 brush for [?] 
To 4 doz. eggs [?] To 6 fowls @ 3/4 [?] 
To Cash paid for cutting the General's hair 



2 


12 


6 


2 


4 




1 


7 




1 


3 




40 


2 


6 


14 


17 
10 

10 


6 


1 


14 






5 


•1 




8 






7 


6 


6 








■2 






[?] 


•1 





224 



April 10 

[?] 
[?] 
[?] 

April 14 
To 1 firkin butter [?] 12 

To 1 doz. fowls [?] To 3 doz. eggs 2 11 

To 1 china teapot 15/ To pair cloath for ye Gen. 
horse 2 

April 17 
To one quarter veal 3/ To 5 brooms @ 2/10/ 18 

To 3 doz. eggs @ 2/6/ To 1 turkey 7/6 13 6 

April 19 
To Cash paid to a person who brought Mrs. 
Washington a present 5 4 

April 20 
To Cash paid Servant Isaac $16.00 6 

To Cash paid Capt. Lewis for Expenses of the 

Generals guard etc. in December and other 

expenses of the family 15 

Daily Expenses brought Forward 1777 

April 23 
The foot of the other side brought over 1,249 19 3 

To Cash paid Mrs. Thompson for Expenses of 

the family as pr bill rendered on file 9 10 10 

To Cash paid Mrs. Thompson for money she 

paid at sundry times when in the family as 

will appear on the back of the above men- 
tioned bill 3 5 8 
To Cash paid Mrs. Thompson for her services 

as housekeeper to His Excellency General 

from 9th of July 1776 to the 23rd of April 

1777 at the rate of £50 New York money per 

year as pr bill rendered 37 10 

April 20 
To Cash paid Servant Jenny on the balance of 

wages from the 13 July 1776 to the 23rd 

April 1777 10 

To Cash paid John Whitehead as balance due 

for his services from 7th April 1776 to 23rd 

April 1777 24th at the rate of $5.00 pr 

month as per receipt 
To Cash paid for bucket [?] brush 
To engraving the General's Arms as per bill 

April 30 
To new bridle for Do 
To Mr. Galaway Taylors bill as per Do 



225 



17 
5 


2 

3 

M 


6 


1 10 
9 


Hi 


3 





7 


6 


3 






1 


17 


6 


16 


16 


5 




18 


6 


2 


10 





May 1 
To Cash paid for advertisement Evening Post 
To 2 pair thread hose for His Excellency © 30/ 

May 3 
To Cash paid for mending larger etc. Servants 

May 4 
To Cloaths for Servants as per bill 

May 2 
To buttons etc. for Do 

May 5 
To 2 pair thread hose for Servant Will 

May 7 
To 3 lbs. sealing wax ©36/ 5 8 

To Cash paid Mr. McGuire To bear his expense 

to headquarters as steward 
To 6 lbs. hair powder for His Excellency @ 2/ 
To 2 [30 Washington cented best?] @ 3/9 
To 2 pair gloves 
To Chest to put publick papers in 

May 8 
To a hatt box etc. for His Excellency 
To Cash paid for pipe wine as pr bill 

May 9 
To Cash paid for bib spirits as per bill 
To portage loading waggons etc. 

May 17 
To Cash paid for mending Phaeton as pr bill 



To Cash paid for bb.l cider @ £4..0 

To 2 quarters veal @ 8/16/ To 4 doz. eggs @ 3/ 

To 26 lbs. ham @ 1/3 34/4 To 4 lbs. butter @ 3/ 

12/ 2 6 4 

May 15 
To 20 lbs. Do 25/ To 6 fowls @ 3/9 22/6 2 7 6 

To asparagrass 5/ To greens 2/6 7 6 

May 16 
To 5 fowls @ 3/9 18/9 To 3 lbs. butter ©3/9/ 17 6 

May 17 
To 3 doz. eggs © 2/6 7/6 To 4 fowls © 3/9 15/ 12 6 

To greens 2/6 To 6 lbs. butter © 3/ 18/ 1 6 



2 


5 
12 






7 


6 




1 




3 


10 




7 


10 




151 


12 


6 


53 


4 




1 


2 


6 




3 


10 


1,600 


13 


11 


\6 






1 


8 





226 



May 18 

To 4 fowls @ 3/9 15/ To 3 doz. eggs @ 3/6 7/6 12 6 

To 6 fowls @ 3/9 22/6 To 2 bush.l potatoes @ 
8/16/ 1 18 6 

To 3 lbs. butter @ 3/9/ To 1 turkey 7/6 16 6 

Expenses to and from Phil. a on the Gen. 11 busi- 
ness at Crossroads 10/ at Corells Ferry 4/6 14 6 

May 15 

At Comleys 8/6 Returning at Comleys 6/ 14 6 
To Cash paid for help getting the waggon out of 

the ditch 15 

At Correls Ferry waggoneer horses etc. 12 6 

At South Branch all night waggons etc. 1 10 8 

May 16 
At White Horse Tavern 15/6 at Crossroads Din- 
ner etc. 16/4 17 11 10 

May 19 
To 6 fowls @ 3/9 22/6 To 4 doz. eggs @ 3/ 12/ 1 14 6 

To 30 lbs. butter @ 2/6 £3.. 15/ To one quarter 
veal 4/6 4 2 6 

May 20 
To 4 fowls @ 3/9 15/ To eggs 6/ 1 1 

May 21 
To 10 lbs. butter @ 3/54/ To 2 fowls @ 3/9 7/6 
To 1 turkey 8/ To 6 fowls @ 3/9 22/6 

May 23 

To 12 doz. eggs @ 3/ 36/ to 6 lbs. butter @ 3/18/ 
To 4 fowls @ 3/9 15/ To mutton 8/ 

May 23 
To one quarter veal 10/ To 1 bush. 11 potatoes /8 18 

May 24 
To Cash gave Mr. Ogden Servant for conduct- 
ing the Gen. 11 to the meadows 5 

May 25 
To 10 lbs. butter @ 3/30/ 1 10 

To one quarter veal 9 to 4 doz. eggs @ 3/12/ 1 1 

May 26 

To two quarters lamb 8/ To greens 2/6 10 6 

May 27 
To Cash paid Taylor for mending the Gen. 11 
cloathes making servants coats and mending 
etc. 2 5 



3 
1 


1 
10 


6 
6 


2 

1 


14 
3 





227 



May 29 
To 3 quarters lamb @ 7/6 22/6 To potatoes 4/ 1 6 10 

To fish 5/ To 10 doz. eggs @ 3/ 30/ 1 15 

To 3 bush, potatoes @ 7/6 22/6 To 6 fowls @ 
3/9/16 2 5 



Daily Expenses Brought Forward 1777 



1,664 3 2 172 



October 
To the foot of this side brought over 2,973 3 9 1/2 

October 2 
To 75 lbs. veal @ 1/6 £3..12..6 To 10 lbs. 

butter @ 7/6 75/ 9 7 6 

To Cash paid Servant Isaac 7 6 

To Cash paid Major Jameson for bill at Adjuted 

of @ Quibble [?] Town 2 5 

October 4 
To Cash paid Nathan Wentz as pr bill exhibited 2 10 6 

To 10 lbs. butter @ 7/6 75/2 To 6 fowls @ 3/9 

22/6 4 17 6 

To 8 lbs. butter @ 3/ 24/ To potatoes 5/ 19 

October 8 
To Cash paid @ [?] for necessaries used in the 
house potatoes milk--fowls--etc. & trouble 5 

October 10 
To Cash paid Servant Isaac 2 2 6 

October 11 
To Cash paid for cutting the General's hair 2 

October 12 
To 10 lbs. butter @ [?] To 8 lbs. Do @ 7/6 60/ 5 

October 13 
To Cash paid Isaac Servant 45/ To 6 fowls @ 

3/10 3 3 

To Cash McGuire paid for hay and oats for his 
horse 7 6 

October 16 
To Cash paid Frederick Wembole as per bill 28 5 4 

To Cash paid for |?1 & trouble etc. [?] 1 17 6 

October 17 
To 12 lbs. butter @ 7/6 £4.. 10 To 8 fowls @ 

3/9 30/ 6 

To 28 lbs. veal @ 1/6 42/ To 3 lbs. butter @ 

7/6 22/6 3 4 6 



228 



2 


18 


6 


4 


7 


8 


7 


L3 


5 


1 


2 


6 


3 


15 




3 


9 
10 




2 






1 


2 


6 



October 19 
To 42 lbs. veal @ 1/3 52/6 To onions 6/ 
To 10 lbs. butter @ 7/6 75/ To 1/4 mutton 12/8 
To Cash paid Nathan Wentz as pr bill rendered 
To Cash paid Do for trouble & use of the house 

October 21 
To 2 lbs. butter 1/6 70/ To Cash for fowls 15/ 
Omitted the 15th 11 1/2 lbs. butter @ 6/ 69/ 
Do 16th 4 chickens @ 8/6 

Do 17th 28 lbs. veal @ 1/28/ To 2 lbs. butter 12/ 
Do 19th 3 lbs. butter @ 7/6 22/6 

October 22 
To 4 fowls @ 3/1 15/ To onions 6/ 11 

October 23 
To 6 fowls @ 3/9 22/6 To 6 lbs. butter @ 7/6 45/ 3 7 6 

October 24 
To 6 lbs. butter @ 7/6 45/ To 40 lbs. veal @ 1/6 
60/ 5 5 

October 26 
To 10 lbs. butter @ 7/6 75/ To 6 fowls @ 3/9 22/6 4 17 6 

October 29 
To 5 lbs. butter @ 7/6 37/6 To 4 ducks 3/9 15/ 2 12 6 

October 30 
To 8 lbs. butter @ 7/6 60/ To 2 geese @ 7/6 15 3 15 



3,097 5 8 1/2 

October 30 
To Cash paid Col. Meade as & receipt for the 
Expense of His Excellency's family 118 17 6 

November 21 
To 10 chickens @ 2/ 20 24th To 1 iron tub for 
butter 45/ 3 5 

December 1 
To 30 lbs. butter @ 3/9 £5.. 12.. 6 7th To 3 brace 

grouse @ 7/6 22/6 6 15 

To baking and cooking 15/ To 6 lbs. mutton @ 

1/3 32/6 2 7 6 

To 4 fowls @ 3/9 15/ To potatoes 3/9 18 9 

To turnips 1/6 To cabbage 3/9 5 3 

December 8 
To 4 fowls @ 3/9 15/ To 6 lbs. butter @ 7/6 45/ 3 

To potatoes 3/9 To cabbage 2/6 6 3 

To turnips 2/ To candles 7/6 9 6 

229 



December 9 
To 3 fowls @ 3/9 11/3 11 3 

December 22 

To 4 lbs. butter @ 7/6 30/ To cabbage 3/9 1 13 9 

To potatoes 2/6 To turnips 2/ 4 6 

To 2 turkeys @ 12/6 25/ To 2 geese @ 10/ 20/ 2 5 

To 4 fowls @ 4/ 16/ To 24 lbs. mutton @ 1/2 28/ 2 4 

December 24 

To turnips 3/9 To potatoes 2/6 6 3 

To 3 lbs. butter @ 7/6 22/6 To 4 fowls @ 3/9 15/ 1 17 6 

To 48 lbs. veal @ 1/1 52/ 2 12 
To Mr. Emblin Bill omitted the 6th int. as upon 

file 22 1 2 

December 26 
To 1/2 bush.ll apples 3/9 To 6 fowls @ 3/9 22/6 12 3 

December 27 

To 1 goose 10/ To potatoes 7/6 17 6 

To cabbage 5/ To 4 lbs. butter 7/6 30/ 1 15 

To turnips 5/ To carrots 2/6 7 6 

To 34 lbs. mutton @ 1/4 45/4 To 2 geese @ 10/ 

20/ 3 5 4 

December 29 
To 1 turkey 12/ To 2 ducks @ 5/ 10/ 
To 6 fowls @ 3/9 22/6 To potatoes 7/6 

December 31 
To turnips 5/ To cabbage 7/ 
To 1 turkey 18/9 To 2 ducks @ 5/ 10/ 



1777 

To the foot of the other side brought over 

December 31 
To 4 fowls @ 3/9 45/ To 1 goose 10/ 
To [?J lbs. butter @ 7/6 To 1 rabbit 3/9 
To 30 lbs. mutton @ 1/2 35/ 

January 1778 

January 2 
To Cash paid a man who brought a present of 

rock fish 
To 56 lbs. veal @ 1/3 70/ To 24 lbs. mutton @ 
1/26/ 

January 4 
To 12 fowls @ [?] 48/ To cabbage 10/ 
To potatoes 5/ To turnips 7/6 
To apples 2/6 

230 



1 
1 


2 
10 


6 


1 


12 

8 


9 


3,279 


6 


8 1/2 


3,279 


6 


8 


1 
2 

1 


5 
8 

15 


9 



00 


15 


00 


■1 


lb 




2 


is 






12 


6 




2 


6 



3 


1 






11 


3 


1 


8 


6 


3 


12 


6 


2 


12 


6 


2 


5 


4 


2 


7 


6 


3 


12 


6 




17 


6 


2 


11 
15 





January 8 
To 16 lbs. veal 46/ To 11 fowls @ 3/9 15/ 
To cabbage 7/6 To potatoes 3/9 
To turnips 6/ To 18 lbs. mutton @ 1/3 22/6 

January 12 
To cabbage fowls and onions 72/6 
To turkey 15/ To 10 fowls @ 3/9 37/6 
To 2 ducks @ 5/ 10/ 26 lbs. veal @ [?] 30/5 
To 10 lbs. butter @ 5/ 50/ To potatoes @ 7/6 

January 15 
To 8 geese @ 15/ 60/ To fish 12/ 6 
To 2 ducks @ L?] To cabbage 7/6 
To potatoes 6/ To fowls @ 3/9 35/ 
To 1 doz. eggs 2/6 To 1 turkey 12/6 
To Cash paid for a milch cow as per receipt 12 

January 18 
To Cash paid for a wagoneer & light horsemen 

expenses from Newtown to headquarters the 

Gen. baggage 13 

To 22 lbs. veal @ 22/ 1 20 

January 21 
To 36 lbs. veal @ V3 45/ To 2 1/2 doz. eggs @ 
2/6 6/3 2 11 3 

January 22 
To 6 ducks @ 5 30/ To 12 fowls @ 3/9 15/ 3 15 

To apples [?] To 1 bush. 11 potatoes 7/6 15 

To turnips 5/ 5 

January 24 
To 2 doz. eggs @ 2/6 5/ To cabbage 5/ 10 

January 26 
To 2 [?] brooms 3/9 & 2 Ditto 6/ 
To 10 lbs. veal @ f?] 65/ To 16 lbs. butter @ 5/ 80 



January 26, 1778 
To onions 22/6 To 1 pr rabbits 7/6 
To 12 fowls @ 3/9 45/ To potatoes 10/ 

January 27 
To 36 fowls @ 2/6 90/ To 5 turkeys @ 7/6 37/6 
To 2 lbs. butter @ 5/ 10/ 



7 


5 




70 


15 


7 


1 


7 




2 


15 




6 


7 
10 


6 



231 



January 29 
To 40 lbs. veal @ 1 48/ To 1 goose 10/ 2 10 

To 1 turkey 15/ To 1 doz. eggs 2/ 17 

To 2 bushels potatoes @ 7/6 15/ 1 10 

To Cash paid Col. Hamilton by the General's 

order for French men as per bill 37 10 

To Cash paid for Col. Hamilton's & Capt. Gibbs 

expenses from headquarters from Albany and 

back as per bill 115 9 9 

To Cash paid Col. Pickering for money the Gen. 

borrowed 15 

January 30 
To 1 doz. eggs 2/6 2 6 

February 2 
To Cash paid Col. Tilghman for monies he paid 
for the use of the family at French Creek as 
per bill 3 

February 5 
To 50 lbs. veal @ 172 58/4 To 1 1/2 bush .11 

onions @ 15/ 22/6 2 00 10 

To 1 bush. 11 potatoes 7/6 7 6 

February 4 
To 20 lbs. rockfish @ 2/ 40/ To 7 doz. perch @ 

10/ 70 5 10 

To 1 bush.ll appels 15/ To 1 bush.ll onions 15/ 1 10 

February 6 
To 8 fowls @ 3/9 30/ To 6 cabbages @ 176 1 16 

To turnips 7/6 7 6 

February 7 

To Cash paid Benj. Ring for his account when 
at Brandywine 11th September 1777 as pr 
bill 22 10 

To Cash paid Col. Meade when to meet Mrs. 
Washington as per bill 

To a brush for the Gen. 11 horses 3/9 

To a broom for the stable 3/9 To mend J. Can- 
teen saddle [?] 7/6 

To Cash paid for antimony for the Gen. 11 horses 
22/6 

To 26 lbs. veal @ 171 28/2 To 6 lbs. butter @ 5/ 
30/ 

February 9 
To 6 fowls @ 3/9 22/6 To potatoes 8/ 1 10 

February 11 
To 24 lbs. veal @ 10/ 20/ To 4 fowls @ 3/9 15/ 1 15 

To 1 doz. eggs 2/ to 1 bush.ll turnips 12/ 14_ 

294 7 



232 





7 
3 


10 
9 




11 


■A 


1 


2 


6 


2 


IS 


2 



00 


16 


>s 


3 


17 


6 


11 


5 




7 


10 





Daily Expenses Brought Forward 1778 

To the foot of the other side brought over 294 

February 14 
To 20 lbs. veal @ 10/ 16/ 8 
To Cash paid Frank the hostler on balance 
To Cash paid Frank the Hostler $30.00 
To Cash paid Servant Isaac the Cook $20.00 

February 16 

To 8 lbs. butter @ 3/9 30/ 

February 17 
To Cash paid Col. Lawrence for monies he paid 

Chester Derby-Phil, as per bill 40 5 

To 10 fowls @ 3/9 37/6 To cabbage 10/ 2 7 6 

February 18 
To 9 lbs. butter @ 3/9 33/9 To 12 partridges [?J/6 2 1 3 

To 5 doz. eggs @ 3/15 To 32 lbs. veal @ 10/26/8 2 18 

February 21 
To 3 pecks onions @ 5/15 To 2 bush potatoes 

15/ 1 10 

To 10 lbs. butter @ 7/6 75/ To 6 fowls @ 3/9 

22/6 
To potatoes and turnips 15/ To 30 cabbages 30/ 
To 12 fowls @ 13/9 45/ To 4 lbs. butter @ 3/9 
To 1/2 bush.ll potatoes 5/ To 4 doz. eggs @ 3/12/ 
To 1 bush.ll turnips 7/9 To parsnips 7/6 
To 2 1/2 doz. eggs 7/4 To 3 partridges 3/ 

February 22 
To Cash given servant for bringing fowls etc. 

M. Jameson 
To Cash given Col. Biddels servant for Bid. 

February 24 
To 1 bushell potatoes 10/ To 12 lbs. veal @ 1/12/ 
To cabbage 12/ To 1 pair rabbits 3/9 

February 25 
To 9 lbs. butter @ 3/9 To 1 turkey 12/ 15 9 

February 27 
To 2 geese @ 7/6 15 To 9 fowls @ 3/33/9 2 8 9 

To 1 rabbit 2/ To 1 doz partridges 12/ 14 

To Cash paid McGuire for a pair gloves for the 

Gen.ll 15 

To Cash paid the 22 inst. to [?] & by the G.C. 1 10 

To Cash paid the 26th to Gen.ll Smallwood's 

servants 15 

February 28 
To 22 lbs. of veal @ 1/22/ To 3 lbs. fresh butter 
@ 176 22/6 2 4 6 

233 



4 


17 


6 


2 


5 






15 


■A 




17 






15 


3 




12 


11 




7 


6 




3 


9 


1 


2 






If) 


9 



3 


15 




2 


12 


6 


1 


8 


6 


3 


15 




401 


12 


00 



March 4 
To 1 turkey 22/6 To 15 fowls @ 3/9 52/6 
To 1 wild goose 22/6 To 10 doz eggs @ 3/30/ 
To 15 rids cabbage @ 1/6 22/6 To onions 6/ 

March 5 
To Cash paid the taylor for making the Genii 

cloaths 
To Cash paid Do for making [wills?] 
To the foot of the other side brought up 



March 5 
To 22 lbs. veal @ 1/22/ To 10 lbs. butter @ 
5/ 50/ 3 12 

March 6 
To Cash paid Patrick McGuire on settlement 

for his wages in full as steward to the 

General on receipt 
To Cash paid Owen Carey for sundries had at 

Mr. Paulins as per bill 
To 10 fowls @ 5/ 50/ To 1 bush, turnips 7/6 
To onions 3/9 To eggs 1 doz. 3/ 
To cabbage 8/ To 3 lbs. butter @ 4/12/ 

March 7 
To 8 fowls @ 3/9 30/ To 8 lbs. butter @ 5/40/ 
To 1/2 basket turnips 3/9 To dry apples 6/ 
To cabbage 7/6 To 1 quarter veal 14/ 
To 20 lbs. butter @ 7/6 for £7.. 10 To 2 bush. 11 
potatoes 8 10 



March 8 
To 4 fowls @ 3/9 15/ To onions 3/9 10 9 

March 9 
To 6 geese @ 10/ 60/ To 12 fowls 3/9 45/ 5 5 

To cabbage 7/6 To 1 bushel potatoes 10/ 17 6 

March 12 
To 3 lbs. fresh butter @ 6/18/ 18 

March 10 
To Cash paid for expense for a man, wagon, 
and going to fetch Wm. Tomfor from New- 
town 5 5 

March 11 

To cash paid Mr. Livingston for butter sent to 
headquarters from Bethlehem also for the 
conveyence of the Genii baggage from New- 
town as per bill 10 15 

To 2 yds. black ribbon @ 5/ 10 



234 



62 


16 


5 


7 


15 




2 


17 


6 




6 


9 


1 






3 


10 
9 




1 


1 





5 


15 




2 


12 

11 
13 


6 




17 


6 


■1 


4 


6 


5 


19 






19 


9 


2 


12 




2 


1 


3 


1 


7 


4 



March 12 
35 lbs. veal @ 1/ 35/ To 1/2 lb. tea £4..0 
To 10 fowls @ 3/9 37/6 To 1 turkey 15/ 
To cabbage 5/ To carrots 6/ 
To parsnips 3/9 To onions 1/2 bush.U 10/ 
To 2 pr pidgeons 7/6 To 1 goose 10/ 

March 13 
To turkeys @ 16/ 32/ To 13 fowls ©4/52/ 
To 11 1/2 cheese @ 6/69/ To 10 lbs. butter @ 
5/50/ 

March 15 
To 1 basket 3/9 To 4 fowls @ 4/ 16/ 
To 8 lbs. butter @ 5/ 50/ To 4 doz. eggs 8/ 12/ 
To expenses of man sent into the country to 

buy necessaries 
To 28 lbs. veal @ 10/ 23/ 4 To 1/2 bush. 

Daily Expenses Brought 1778 

March 1778 
March 15 To the foot of the other brought over 
To 8 fowls @ 3/9 30/ To 2 ducks 7/6 
To 1 doz. Eggs 2/6 To 1/2 bush.ll potatoes 7/6 

March 17 
To 24 lbs. ham @ 4 96/ To 20 lbs. fresh pork @ 

176 30/ 
To 7 lbs. smoked beef @ 3/2 1/ To 8 lbs. buttr 2 
3/9 30/ 

March 19 
To 68 lbs. veal @ 10/56/8 To 6 doz. Eggs @ 3/18/ 
To 15 lbs. butter @ 3/9 52/6 To 4 fowls @ 3/9 

15/ 
To 1 Crock for butter 3/9 To Cabbage 5 
To potatoes 10/ To 4 fowls @ 4 16/ 
To Expenses of man sent into the Country 15/ 

March 21 
To 6 fowls @ 3/9 22/6 To turnips 5/ 17 6 

March 23 
To 4 doz.n eggs @ 3/9 15/ To 1 bushll potatoes 
15/ 1 10 

March 24 
To 2 geese @ 10/20/ To cabbage 3/9 13 9 

To pieces smoked venison 10/ 10 

March 25 

To 1 bushll 15/ To 2 fowls @ 3/9 7/6 12 6 

To 4 lbs. butter @ 4/ 16 To 3 doz. eggs @ 2/6 12 

To cabbage 5/ To 12 lbs. butter @ 5/60/ 3 50 

To 12 lbs. butter @ 3/9 45/ To lbs. tea @ 8 £16 18 5 

To expenses of the man sent to the County 1 13 9 

235 



553 


13 


3 


1 


17 
10 


6 


6 


6 




2 


11 




3 


11 


8 


3 


7 


6 




9 


9 


1 


16 
15 





1 


4 


9 


3 


8 
15 


4 


2 


10 




1 


10 


6 


1 


10 

8 




3 


17 




2 






7 


10 




4 


5 




2 


7 


6 


2 







March 27 
To 5 lbs. butter @ 3/9 18/9 To 3 dozn eggs @ 2/6 
To 58 lbs. veal @ 10/48/4 To 2 bushll potatoes 

20/ 
To Cash gave a man for bringing Oysters from 

Ld [LordJ Stirling 
To 1 bbll beer 30/ To 2 geese @ 10/ 20/ 

March 30 
To 6 fowls @ 3/9 22/6 To 12 hds cabbage 18/ 
To 5 doz. eggs @ 3/ 15/ To apples 1/2 bush 1 

peck 
To 8 bunches Carrots @ 1/8/ 
To 1 goose 15/ To 48 lbs. veal @ 176 62/ 
To 1 bushll onions 20/-To 2 bush potatoes 20/ 
To 2 bbl beer @ 30/ 60/ To one bbl cider 30/ 

April 1 
To 15 lbs. butter @ 5/75 To cabbage 10/ 
To 10 fowls @ 3/9 37/6 To parsnips 10/ 
To 2 bush potatoes @ 10/20/ To 2 pair duck 20/ 

April 3 
To 6 bush. 11 apples @ 20/6 £ To 19 doz eggs @ 
176 28/8 7 8 6 



April 5 

To 65 lbs. butter @ 5/ £16.. 5 To 50 lbs. veal @ 
1/37 37/6 

To 14 pair fowls @ 7/6 £5..5/ To cabbage 10/ 

To the Expense of two men & waggon to go to 
Bucks County after necessary as per bill 

To 13 lbs. butter @ 4/6 64/10 To eggs 8/ 

To Cash paid Margret Thomas for washing 
from 20th Octobr 76 to 20th Feby 78 in- 
clusively as per bill 

To 4 lbs. butter @ 6/24/ To 20 lbs. veal @ 176 
30/ 

April 7 
To 11 doz. eggs @ 3/33 To 10 fowls @ 3/9 37/6 3 10 

To 17 lbs. ham @ 4/68 To 1 bushll & 1 peck 

parsnips 15/ 
To 14 hds Cabbage 15/ To 2 doz. eggs 6/ 

April 8 
To 8 fowls @ 3/9 30/ To 2 doz. Do [eggs] 5/10/ 
To 1/2 bush.ll & 1 peck apples 30/ 
To Expenses of man sent into the County 
To 68 lbs. veal @ 176 £5 

To 3 lbs. fresh butter @ 3/9 11/3 To 2 bucks 10/ 
To 1/2 bush.ll potatoes 5/ To parsnips 6/ 



236 



645 


14 


9 


18 


2 


6 


5 


15 




11 


17 


6 


3 


12 


10 1/2 


28 


17 


6 


4 


4 





4 


3 


1 


1 


2 




1 


10 


1 


10 


5 




1 


1 




1 1 



April 10 
To 1 ham 13 lbs. @ 4/ 52/ To one mess sprouts 

2/ 2 14 

To 1 bush. 11 and 1 peck apples 60/ To 6 doz. 

eggs @ 3/18/ 
To 6 shad @ 2/6 15/ To 1 ham 14 lbs. @ 4/50 
To 6 shad @ 3/ 18/ To 1 ham 15 lbs. @ 11/16/ 
To a man expenses to go in the Country 

April 12 
To 36 lbs. veal @ 1/ 36/ To 1 bush.ll potatoes 10/ 
To 1 barrill Cyder £4 To fish 10/ 
To 8 fowls @ 3/9 30/ To 1 pair ducks 7/6 
To 5 dozen eggs @ 3/ 15/ To 14 lbs. veal @ 1/ 14/ 

April 14 
To 2 pr. spur leathers for the General 10/ 
To mending spurs 12/6 To 174 lb. nutmeg £4.. 10 
To 4 lbs. pepper [?] @ 27/6 £5.. 10 To 1 lb. 

alspice 15/ 
To 2 oz. indigo @ 5/ 10/ To 2 girths @ 22/6 45/ 



Daily Expenses Brought Forward 1778 



3 


18 




3 


11 




3 


18 




1 


17 


6 


2 


6 




4 


10 




1 


17 


6 


1 


9 
10 




5 


2 


6 


6 


5 




2 


15 





779 4 4 1/2 



April 1778 
To the amount of the other side brought over 779 4 4 1/2 

April 15 
To 11 fowls & 1 duck @ 3/9 45/ To 14 lbs. butter 

@ 5/79 5 15 00 

To 62 lbs. veal @ 10 51/8 To 8 shad @ 2/6 20/ 3 11 8 

April 16 
To 12 lbs. butter @ 5/ 660/ To 6 doz. eggs @ 2/6 
15/ 3 15 00 

April 18 

To 8 shad @ 2/6 20/ To 1 barrel cider £4..0 5 00 00 

To 1 mess sallard 1/6 to 15 lbs. buttr @ 3/9 52/6 2 14 00 

To 2 Large teapots @ 15/ 30/ To black silk 10/ 2 00 00 
To 3 black stocks @ 45/ £6.. 5 To 1 bottle snuff 

25/ 7 10 00 

To 4 lbs. greene tea @ £9 36 00 00 

To 7 shad @ 2/6 17/6 To 20 lbs. veal @ 19/ 16/8 1 14 2 

April 20 
To 3 doz. eggs @ 2/6 7/6 To 10 shad @ 2/6 25 1 12 00 

To 3 doz. large quills buttons for the General @ 

40/ 6 6 8 

To 3 doz. small Do Do @ 20 3 00 00 

April 22 
To 7 doz. eggs @ 2/14/ To 1 bushll potatoes 10/ 1 4 



237 



May 1778 



2 


18 


6 


18 


5 




1 


15 




3 


00 


00 


7 


10 




21 


19 


6 


3 


00 


00 


3 


15 


00 



April 24 

To 12 pair fowls @ 7/6 4 lbs. 10/ 4 10 

To 12 doz. eggs @ 3/36/ To 3 bushll potatoes @ 
7/6 22/6 

To 1 calf £4.. 10 To 55 lbs. buttr @ 5/ £13..5 

To 2 pigs @ 10/ 20/ To 6 shad @ 2/6 15/ 

To the hire of a waggon to bring things from 
the country 

To the expenses of a man as per bill 

To Captain Gibbs Expenses to Lancaster/Red- 
ding on the General's business 

April 26 
To 1 barrell beer [?] 30/ To 6 lbs. fresh butter @ 
5/30/ 

April 28 
To Cash paid by the General's Order for deduct- 
ing a Thief stealing spirits 

April 30 
To 20 lbs. of ham @ 4/ £4..00 To 1 bushll 
potatoes 7/6 4 7 6 

May 1 
To fish 7/6 To 2 pair fowls @ 7/6 15/ 12 6 

To 1/2 bushll onions 10/ To Sprouts 2/6 00 12 6 

May 4 
To 6 shad @ 2/[?] 25/ To 2 doz. eggs ©2/4/ 00 19 00 

May 5 

To 10 pair fowls @ 3/9 37/6 To 36 lbs. muttn 
@ 1/3 45/ 4 2 6 

To 30 lbs. fresh pork @ 1/3 37/6 To 20 lbs. but- 
ter @ 5/ £5 6 17 6 

To 20 lbs. veal @ 10/ 16/ 8 To 2 bushll potatoes 
@ 10/ 20/ 1 16 8 



945 18 5 1/2 



May 5 
To 10 shad @ 2/6 25/ To 2 ducks @ 3/9 7/6 1 12 6 

To a man's [?] sent to Bucks County for neces- 
saries 1 14 9 

May 6 
To 6 doz.n eggs @ 3/ 18/ To 1 pig 10/ 1 8 

May 7 
To 60 lbs. veal @ 10/ 50/ To 20 lbs. butter @ 4/ 
£4 6 10 



238 



1 


00 


3 


6 


4 


00 


91 


2 


2 


5 


2 


6 



3 


17 


6 


3 


10 


6 


2 


12 


6 


3 


5 


10 



May 9 
To 6 shad @ 2/6 15/ To 1/2 bushll potatoes 5/ 
To 65 lbs. veal @ 10/ 5 1/2 To 6 doz. eggs @ 2/12/ 
To 10 lbs. fresh butter @ 5/ 50/ To 8 fowls @ 3/9 

30/ 
To 121 pr # loaf sugar @ 15/ as receipt 



May 11 
To 1 barrell beer 30/ To 6 shad @ 2/6 15/ 
To a man's expenses to procure necessaries in 
the Country 

May 12 

To Cash paid Jeremiah Low for necessaries 
brought to mend the Gen.l and Servants Sad- 
dles 

To 14 lbs. butter @ 4/6 63/ To potatoes 7/6 

To 10 lbs. Do @ 5/ 50/ To Greens 2/6 

To 61 lbs. veal @ 10/50/10 To 4 fowls @ 3/9 15/ 

To 4 doz. eggs @ 2/6 10/ To 11 lbs. butter @ 
4/44/ 2 14 00 

May 14 
To 60 lbs. veal @ 10/ 50/ To 15 lbs. butter @ 3/9 

52/6 
To 1 bushel potatoes 15/ To sallard 3/9 
To coarse riddish 7/6 To Greens 2/6 

May 15 
To 23 1/2 lbs. veal @ 10/19/2 To 6 doz. eggs @ 

2/6 15/ 
To 10 lbs. butter @ 4/40/ To 2 turkeys @ 15/30/ 

May 17 
To 56 veal @ 10/46/8 To sallard 2/6 
To 8 lbs. butter @ 3/9 30/2 To 1 pig 15/ 
To 14 lbs. lamb @ 1/14/ To 2 doz. eggs @ 2/6 5/ 

May 18 
To 7-3/4 fresh butter @ 4/6 34/10/2 To potatoes 

7/6 
To 66 lbs. veal @ 10/ 55/ To 6 lbs. butter 3/9 

22/6 
To 5 doz. eggs @ 2/6 12/6 To Greens & Sallard 

5/ 

May 22 
To 23 lbs butter © 5/ £5 15/ To 1/2 bushll 

potatoes 7/6 
To 1 bbl beer 30/ To 4 fowls @ 3/9 15/ 

May 24 
To 57 lbs. veal @ 10/ 47/6 To Greens & Sallard 
4/ 2 11 



5 


2 


6 




18 


9 




10 




1 


14 


2 


3 


10 




2 


9 


2 


2 


5 

19 




2 


2 


4 1/2 


3 


17 


6 




17 


6 


6 


2 


6 


2 


5 





239 



May 26 
To 6 doz.n eggs @ 2/6 15/ To 20 butter @ 4/80/ 4 15 

1,117 4 2 



Daily Expenses Brought Forward 1778 

May 17 1778 
To the Amount of the Other side brought over 1,117 4 2 

28th 
To 55 lb of veal @ 10/45/10 To 34 lbs of buttr 
@ 4/ £6 16 9 1 10 

30th 
To Cash paid a man for bringing fish as a 

present 00 15 00 

To 26 lbs. ham @ 5/ 5 4 to greens & sallard 4/6 5 8 6 

June 1st 
To 41 lbs. veal @ 10/34/2 To sallard 2/6 1 16 8 

To 1 bbl beer 30/ To 1 bush potatoes 15/ 2 5 

June 3rd 
To 6 doz eggs @ 3/18/ To 1 pig 15/ 1 13 

To 18 lbs. butter at 4/72/ To greens and sallard 
3/9 3 15 9 

June 5 
To 43 lbs. veal @ 10/35/10 To 2 fowls @ 3/9-7/6 2 3 4 

To Cash gave servant for bring, pease a present 00 7 6 

To 38 lbs. lamb @ 1/38/ To greens 2/6 2 00 6 

To Cash paid man to goin the country to pro- 
vide necessaries at Sundry times 4 10 6 
To Cash paid Mrs. Thompson for small articles 
bought in the house 3 6 6 

June 7 
To 53 lbs. of lamb @ 1/53/ To 42 veal @ 10/34/ 4 8 

To sallard & greens 8/ to eggs 4/6 00 12 6 

June 8 
To 27 lbs. butter @ 3/9 4 17 6 To 20 lbs. ham @ 

4/80/ 8 17 6 

June 9 
To 37 lbs. lamb @ 1/37 to 10 lbs. butter @ 3/9 
3/16 3 14? 6 

June 10 
To Sallard and Greens 10/6 To 14 lbs. veal @ 10/ 

1178 12 2 



240 



June 11 
To 16 lbs. butter @ 3/9 £3 To 6 lbs. @ 4/24 4 4 

To Cash paid troops for bring strawberrys from 
Mrs. Henry 00 7 6 

June 12 
To 50 lbs. veal @ 10/41/8 To greens and sallard 

7/6 2 9 2 

To 5 doz eggs @ 3/15 To 10 lbs. butter @ 3/9 3/16 2 2 6 

June 14 
To 28 lbs. lamb @ 1/28 To sallard & greens 5/ 1 13 

June 15 
To 66 lbs. veal @ 10/55/6 To 6 lbs. butter @ 3/9 

22/6 3 18 00 

To 4 doz. eggs @ 2/6 10/ To greens and sallard 

10/ 1 00 00 

June 16 
To 16 lbs. butter @ 3/9 6/ sallard and greens 
5/ 3 5 00 

June 17 

To 36 lbs. lamb @ 1/36 To 4 lbs. Butter @ 3/9 
15/ 2 11 00 

To sallard and greens 8/3 To eggs 2 doz @2/6 5/ 13 3 00 

To Cash paid boy a day or two ago from bring- 
ing strawberries from Mr. Mitchel Potts 
Grove 00 7 6 

June 18 
To 48 veal @ 10/35/ To 10 lbs. butter @3/9 34/6 3 12 6 

1,199 16 4 

1778 The amount of the other side brought up 1,199 16 4 

June 18 

To Cash paid Mathew Clarkson for wine hac' of 
Mr. David Clarkson of Flat Bush as per ac- 
count and receipt 43 4 00 

To Cash paid for expenses for going in the 
country to procure necessaries for the family 1 14 6 

To Cash paid Mrs. Hewes for the use of her 
house and furniture at V. Forge as pr bill 100 00 00 

June 20 
To Cash paid for pine Apples 1 5 00 

To Cash gave Mrs. Thompson servants by the 

Gen'l 1 17 6 

To 2 roasting pigs 17/6 00 17 6 

June 21 
To Cash paid Jno. Feke for Breakfast, Dinner, 
& Sup for the General and suite 6 00 00 



241 



June 23 
To Cash paid Richard Holcombe as per bill 
To 13 chickens @ 1/13/ To 17 chickens @ 1/5/25 

June 25 
To 11 chickens @ 1/1 1/ 26 To 12 chickens @ 2/24 

June 27 
To 3 doz biskett 15/ To 14 chickens @ 2/28 



10 17 6 
1 18 



1 15 00 

2 3 00 



June 30 
To 12 chickens @ 1/12/ July 1 To 16 chickens 
1/16 



0(1 



DATE DUE 


JAM ft 2 2002 




Vrvll V *■ mwmm 








WtVA 

























































DEMCO. INC 38-2931 



242 



U S GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1990-773-038 20.008 REGION NO 8 




<xr~t 




As the nation's principal conservation agency, the Department of the Interior has responsibility for 
most of our nationally owned public lands and natural and cultural resources. This includes fostering 
wise use of our land and water resources, protecting our fish and wildlife, preserving the 
environmental and cultural values of our national parks and historical places, and providing for the 
enjoyment of life through outdoor recreation. The department assesses our energy and mineral 
resources and works to ensure that their development is in the best interests of all our people. The 
department also promotes the goals of the Take Pride in America campaign by encouraging 
stewardship and citizen responsibility for the public lands and promoting citizen participation in their 
care. The department also has a major responsibility for American Indian reservation communities 
and for people who live in island territories under U.S. administration. 



Publication services were provided by the graphics staff of the Denver Service Center. 
NPSD-16 September 1990